1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Scotland - Wikisource, the free online library (2024)

SCOTLAND, the name given in modern times to that portionof Great Britain which lies north of the English boundary;it also comprises the Outer and Inner Hebrides and other islandsoff the west coast, and the Orkney and Shetland islands off thenorth coast. With England lying to the south, it is thus boundedon the N. and W. by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the E. by theNorth Sea. It is separated from England by the Solway Firth,the Sark, Scotsdyke (an old embankment in 55° 3′ N., connectingthe Sark with the Esk), the Esk (for one mile), the Liddel, theKershope, the Cheviot Hills, the Tweed and a small area knownas the “liberties” of Berwick. The mainland lies between 58°40′30″(at Dunnet Head in Caithness) and 54°38′ N. (Mullof Galloway in Wigtownshire), and 1°45′32″ (Buchan Ness inAberdeenshire) and 6° 14′ W. (Ardnamurchan Point in Argyllshire).Including the islands, however, the extreme latitudenorth is 60°51′30″ (Out Stack in the Shetlands) and the extremelongitude west 8°35′30″ (St Kilda). The greatest length fromCape Wrath in Sutherland to the Mull of Galloway is 274 m.,and the greatest breadth from Buchan Ness to Applecross inthe shire of Ross and Cromarty 154 m., but from Bonar Bridgeat the head of Dornoch Firth to the head of Loch Broom it isonly 26 m. wide, and 30 m. from Grangemouth on the Forthto Bowling on the Clyde. The coast-line is estimated at 2300 m.,the arms of the sea being so numerous and in several casespenetrating so far inland that few places are beyond 40 m. fromsalt water. The total area is 19,069,500 acres or 29,796 sq. m.,exclusive of inland waters (about 608 sq. m.), the foreshore(about 498 sq. m.) and tidal water (about 608 sq. m.).

The name Scotland for this geographical area of northernBritain (the Caledonia of the ancients—a name still poeticallyused for Scotland) originated in the 11th century, when (fromthe tribe of Scots) part of it was called Scotia (a name previouslyapplied to what is now Ireland); and the name of Scotlandbecame established in the 12th and 13th centuries. The nameof Britain or North Britain is still firmly associated with Scotland;thus English letters are generally addressed, e.g. “Edinburgh,N.B.,” i.e. North Britain; and Scottish people have longobjected to the conventional use south of the Tweed of the word“English,” when it really means (as they correctly, but sometimesrather pedantically, insist) “British.”

I. Geography

Physically, Scotland is divided into three geographical regions—the“Highlands” (subdivided by Glen More into the North-Westernand South-Eastern Highlands); the Central Plain or“Lowlands” (a tract of south-westerly to north-easterly trend,between a line drawn roughly from Girvan to Dunbar and aline drawn from Dumbarton to Stonehaven); and the SouthernUplands.

The Highlands.—Nearly all this region is lofty ground, deeplytrenched with valleys and sea lochs. The only considerable low-lyingarea embraces the eastern part of Aberdeenshire and thenorthern parts of Banff, Elgin and Nairn—tracts which, ethnologically,do not fall within Highland territory. Along both sides of theMoray Firth a strip of level land lies between the foot of the hillsand the sea, while the county of Caithness, occupying a wide plain,does not, strictly speaking, belong to the Highlands. Seen fromStrathmore or the Firth of Clyde the Highlands present well-definedmasses of hills abruptly rising from the Lowland plains, and fromany of the western islands their sea front resembles a vast rampartindented by lochs and rising to a uniform level, which sinking hereand there allows glimpses of still higher summits in the interior.The Highland hills differ from a mountain chain such as the Alps notmerely in their inferior elevation but in configuration and structure.They are made up of a succession of more or less parallel confluentridges, having in the main a trend from north-east to south-west.These ridges are separated by longitudinal and furrowed by transversevalleys. The portions of the ridge thus isolated rise into whatare regarded as mountains, though they are really only loftier partsof the ridge, along which indeed the geological structure is continued.It is remarkable how the average level of the summits is maintained.Viewed from near at hand a mountain may seem to tower above thesurrounding country, but from a distance it will be seen not to risemuch above the general uniformity of elevation. There are nogigantic dominant masses obviously due to special terrestrial disturbance.A few apparent exceptions occur along the westernseaboard of Sutherland, in Skye and elsewhere, but examination oftheir structure at once explains the reason of their prominence andconfirms the rule. The surface of the Highlands is rugged. Therocks project in innumerable bosses and crags, which roughen thesides and crests of the ridges. The shape and colour of these roughnessesdepend on the nature of the underlying rock. Where it ishard and jointed, weathering into large quadrangular blocks, thehills are more especially distinguished for the gnarled bossy characterof their declivities, as may be seen in Ben Ledi and the heights to thenorth-east of it. Where, on the other hand, the rock decays withsmaller debris, the hills assume smoother contours, as in the slatehills running from the Kyles of Bute to Loch Lomond. But, regardedbroadly, the Highland mountains are monuments of erosion, therelic of an old tableland, the upper surface and former inclinationsof which are shown approximately by the summits of the existingmasses and the direction of the chief water-flows.

The Highlands are separated into two completely disconnectedand in some respects contrasted regions by the depression of theGreat Glen, extending from Loch Linnhe to Inverness, by which theancient plateau was severed. In the north-western section thehighest ground is found along the Atlantic coast, mounting steeplyfrom the sea to an average height of 2000 to 3000 ft. The watershedconsequently keeps close to the western seaboard, and indeed in someplaces is not above a mile and a half from the shore. From thesehills which catch the first downpour of the rains from the ocean, theground falls eastward. Numerous eminences, however, prolong themountainous features to the North Sea and south-eastward to GlenMore. The difference of the general level on the two sides of thewater-parting is reflected in the length of their streams. On the westthe drainage empties itself into the Atlantic after flowing only a veryfew miles, on the east it has to run 30 or 40 m. At the head of LochNevis the western stream is but 3 m. long, while the eastern hasa course of some 18 m. to the Great Glen. Throughout the north-westernregion uniformity of features characterizes the scenery,betokening even at a distance the general monotony of structure.But the sameness is relieved along the western coast of the shires ofSutherland and Ross and Cromarty by groups of cones and stacks,and farther south by the terraced plateaus and abrupt conical hillsof Skye, Rum and Mull.

The south-eastern region of the Highlands, having a more diversifiedgeological structure, offers greater variety of scenery. Most ofthe valleys, lakes and sea lochs run in a south-westerly and north-easterlydirection, a feature strikingly exhibited in west Argyllshire.But there are also several important transverse valleys, those of theGarry and Tay being the most conspicuous examples. The watershed,too, is somewhat different. It first strikes eastwards round thehead of Loch Laggan and then swings southwards, pursuing a sinuouscourse till it leaves the Highlands on the east side of Loch Lomond.The streams flowing westward, however, are still short, while thoserunning to the north-east, east and south-east have long courses anddrain wide areas. There is a marked contrast between the configurationof the north-eastern district and the other parts of this region.In that area the Grampians rise into wide flat-topped heights ormoors often more than 3000, and in a few places exceeding 4000 ft.in height, and bounded by steep declivities and sometimes byprecipices. Seen from an eminence on their surface, the inference isirresistible that these plateaus are fragments of the original tableland,trenched into segments by the formation of the longitudinaland transverse valleys. Farther to the south-west, in the shiresof Perth, Inverness and Argyll, they give place to the ordinaryhummocky crested ridges of Highland scenery, which, however, inBen Nevis and Aonach Beg reach a height of over 4000 ft.

Besides the principal tracts of low-lying ground in the Highlandsalready alluded to, there occur long narrow strips of flat land in themore important valleys. Most of the straths and glens have a floorof detritus which, spread out between the bases of the boundary hills,has been levelled into meadow land by the rivers and provides almostthe sole arable ground in each district.

The Lowlands of Mid-Scotland, or the Central Plain, constitute abroad depression with south-westerly to north-easterl trend lyingbetween the Highland line that runs from the head of, the Firth ofClyde to Stonehaven and the pastoral uplands that stretch fromGirvan to Dunbar. They may be regarded as a long trough ofyounger rocks let down by parallel dislocations between the oldermasses to the south and north. The lowest of these younger rocksare the various sedimentary and volcanic members of the Old RedSandstone. These are covered by the successive formations of theCarboniferous system. The total thickness of both these groups ofrock cannot be less than 30,000 ft., and, as most of them bear evidenceof having been deposited in shallow water, they could only have beenaccumulated during a prolonged period of depression. The questionarises whether this depression affected only the area of the midlandvalley, or extended also to the regions to the north and south;and so far as the evidence goes there is ground for the inference that,while the depression had its maximum along the line of the lowlands,it also involved some portion at least of the high grounds on eitherside. In other words, the Old Red Sandstone and Carboniferousrocks, though chiefly accumulated in the broad lowland valley, creptalso over some part of the hills on either side, where a few outlierstell of their former extension. The central Lowlands are thus ofgreat geological antiquity. During and since the deposition of therocks that underlie them the tract has been the scene of repeated

Drawn and engraved by Justus Perthes, Gotha, Germany.
Copyright in the United States of America, 1910.
by The Encyclopaedia Britannica Co.

terrestrial disturbances. Long dislocations have sharply defined itsnorthern and southern margins. By other fractures and unequalmovements of upheaval or depression portions of the older rocks havebeen brought up within the bounds of the younger, and areas of theyounger have been enclosed by the older. On the whole, these disturbanceshave followed the prevalent north-easterly trend, and hencea general tendency may be observed among the main ridges andvalleys to run in that direction. The chains of the Ochil, Sidlaw,Pentland, Renfrew, Campsie and Fintry Hills, and the valleys of theStrathmore, Firth of Tay, and the basin of Midlothian may be citedas examples. But the dominant cause in the determination of thetopographical prominences and depressions of the district has beenthe relative hardness and softness of the rocks. Almost all theeminences in the Lowlands consist of hard igneous rocks, forming notonly chains of hills such as those just mentioned and others in Ayrshireand Lanarkshire, but isolated crags and hills like those on whichstand the castles of Edinburgh and Stirling, and others conspicuousin the scenery of Fife and the Lothians.

Of the three chief valleys in the central Lowlands two, those of theTay and the Forth, descend from the Highlands, and one, that of theClyde, from the Southern Uplands. Though on the whole transverse,these depressions furnish another notable example of that independenceof geological structure already referred to.

The Southern Uplands extend from the North Channel in the south-westto St Abb's Head in the north-east and form a well-defined beltof hilly ground, and though much less elevated (their highest pointis 2764 ft. above the sea) than the Highlands, rise with scarcely lessabruptness above the lower tracts that bound them. Their north-westernmargin for the most part springs boldly above the fields andmoorlands of the Central Plain, and its boundary for long distancescontinues remarkably straight. On the south and south-east theirlimits in general are less prominently defined, but are better seenwest and south-west of the Nith from which they extend to the seaand Loch Ryan, terminating in the extreme south-west in a plateauof which the loftiest point is little over 1000 ft. above the sea. TheCheviots do not properly belong to the Uplands, from which they areseparated by Liddesdale and other hollows and on which they abutabruptly. But though geologically the one set of mountains mustbe separated from the other, geographically it is convenient to includewithin the Southern Uplands the whole area between the CentralPlain and the Border. A survey of the Uplands, therefore, presentsin succession from south-west to north-east the Kirkcudbrightshireand Ayrshire mountain moors, the Lowthers, the Moffat hills, theMoorfoots and the Lammermuirs. Distinguished especially by thesmoothness of their surface, they may be regarded as a rolling tablelandor moorland, traversed by many valleys conducting thedrainage to the sea. This character is well observed from the heightsof Tweedsmuir. Wide, mossy moors, 2000 ft. or more above the sea,and sometimes level as a racecourse, spread out on all sides. Theircontinuity, however, is interrupted by numerous valleys separatingthem into detached flat-topped hills, which are comparativelyseldom marked by precipices of naked rock. Where the rock projectsit more usually appears in low crags and knolls, from which longtrails of grey or purple debris descend till they are lost among thegrass. Hence, besides being smooth, the uplands are remarkablyverdant. They form indeed excellent pasture-land, while the alluvialflats in the valleys and even some of the lower slopes are fitted forgrain and green crops.

This uniformity of aspect is doubtless traceable to the prevalenceof the same kind of rocks and the same geological structure. TheSilurian greywackes and shales that underlie almost the whole of theUplands weather generally into small angular debris, and at atolerably uniform rate of disintegration. But slight differences mayreadily be detected even where no feature interferes noticeably withthe monotony. The bands of massive grit and coarse greywacke,for example, break up into larger blocks and from their greaterhardness are apt to project above the general surface of the othersofter rocks. Hence their line of trend, which like that of all the otherstrata is in a north-easterly direction, may be traced from hill to hillby their more craggy contours. Only in the higher tracts are thererugged features recalling the more savage character of Highlandscenery. In the heights of Hartfell (2651 ft.) and, Whitecoomb(2695), whence the Clyde, Tweed, Annan, and Moffat Water descend,the high moorlands have been scarped into gloomy corries, with cragsand talus-slopes, which form a series of landscapes all the morestriking from the abrupt and unexpected contrast which they offerto everything around them. In Galloway, also, the highest portionsof the Uplands have acquired a ruggedness and wildness more likethose of the Highlands than any other district in the south of Scotland.For this, however, there is an obvious ecological reason. Inthat region the Silurian rocks have been invaded by large bosses ofgranite and have undergone a variable amount of metamorphismwhich has in some places altered them into hard crystalline schists.These various rocky masses, presenting great differences in theirpowers of resisting decay, have yielded unequally to disintegration:the harder portions project in rocky knolls, crags and cliffs, while thesofter parts have been worn down into more owing outlines. Thehighest summit in the south of Scotland—Merrick (2764 ft.)—consistsof Silurian strata much altered by proximity to the granite, whilethe rest of the more prominent heights (all in Kirkcudbrightshire)—Rinnsof Kells (2668 ft.), Cairnsmuir of Carsphairn (2612), andCairnsmore of Fleet (2331)—are formed of granite.

The watershed of the Southern Uplands is of much interest inrelation to their geological history. It runs from the mouth ofLoch Ryan in a sinuous north-easterly direction, keeping near thenorthern limit of the region till it reaches the basin of the Nith,where it quits the Uplands altogether, descends into the lowlands ofAyrshire, and, after circling round the headwaters of the Nith,strikes south-eastwards across half the breadth of the Uplands,then sweeps north and eastwards between the basins of the Clyde,Tweed and Annan, and then through the moors that surroundthe sources of the Ettrick, Teviot and Jed, into the Cheviot Hills.Here again the longest slope is on the east side, where the Tweedbears the whole drainage of that side into the sea. Although therocks throughout the Southern Uplands have a persistent north-easterlyand south-westerly strike, and though this trend is apparentin the bands of more rugged hills that mark the outcrop of hard gritsand greywackes, nevertheless geological structure has been muchless effective in determining the lines of ridge and valley than in theHighlands. On the southern side of the watershed, in Dumfriesshireand Galloway, the valleys run generally transversely fromnorth-west to south-east. But in the eastern half of the Uplandsthe valleys do not appear to have any relation to the geologicalstructure of the ground underneath.

Characteristic Features.—Though Scotland is pre-eminently a“land of mountain and of flood,” yet its leading physical featuresValleys.are not the lofty ridges carved out of the primevalplateau—apparently the dominant characteristic—but the valleyswhich have been opened through them by the agencies of water andweather, and which are therefore its fundamental topographicalelement. The longitudinal valleys, which run in the same generaldirection as the ridges—that is, north-east and south-west—havehad their trend defined by geological structure, such as a line ofdislocation (the Great Glen), or the plications of the rocks (LochsEricht, Tay and Awe, and most of the sea lochs of Argyllshire).The transverse valleys run north-west or south-east and are for themost part independent of geological structure. The valley of theGarry and Tay crosses the strike of all the Highland rocks, traversesthe great fault on the Highland border, and finally breaks throughthe chain of the Sidlaw Hills at Perth. The valley of the Clyde crossesthe strike of the Silurian folds in the Southern Uplands, the boundaryfault, and the ridges of the Old Red Sandstone, and pursue sits northwesterlycourse across the abundant and often powerful dislocationsof the Carboniferous system.

The crumpling of the earth's crust which folded the rocks of theHighlands and Southern Uplands probably upraised above the seaa series of longitudinal ridges having a general north-easterlydirection. The earliest rain that fell upon these ridges would runoff them, first in transverse watercourses down each short slope, andthen in longitudinal depressions wherever such had been formedduring the terrestrial disturbance. Afterwards the pathways ofthe streams would be gradually deepened and widened into valleys.Hence the valleys are of higher antiquity than the mountains thatflank them. The mountains in fact have been hewn out of the originalbulk of the land in proportion as the valleys have been excavated.The denudation would continue so long as the ground stood abovethe level of the sea; but there have been prolonged periods of depression,when the ground, instead of being eroded, lay below thesea-level and was buried sometimes under thousands of feet ofaccumulated sediment, which completely filled up and obliteratedthe previous drainage-lines. When the land reappeared a new seriesof valleys would at once begin to be eroded; and the subsequentdegradation of these overlying sediments might reveal portions of theolder topography, as in the case of the Great Glen, Lauderdale, andother ancient valleys. But the new drainage-lines have usually littleor no reference to the old ones. Determined by the inequalities ofsurface of the overlying mantle of sedimentary material, they wouldbe wholly independent of the geological structure of the rocks lyingbelow that mantle. Slowly sinking deeper and deeper into the land,they might eventually reach the older rocks, but they would keepin these the lines of valley that they had followed in the overlyingdeposits. In process of time the whole of these deposits might bedenuded from the area, and there might even remain no trace of theyounger formations on which the valleys began and which guided theirexcavation. This is probably the explanation of the striking independenceof geological structure exhibited by the Tweed and the Nith.

Among the valleys certain prevailing characteristics have beenrecognized in their popular names. Straths are broad expanses of lowground between bounding hills and are usually traversed by one mainstream and its tributaries—e.g. Strath Tay, Strath Spey, StrathConon. This name, however, has also been applied to wide tractsof lowland which embrace portions of several valleys, but aredefined by lines of heights on each side; the best example is affordedby Strathmore—the “Great Strath”—between the southern marginof the Highlands and the line of the Sidlaw Hills. This long and widedepression, though it looks like one great valley, strictly speakingincludes portions of the valleys of the Tay, Isla, North Esk andSouth Esk, all of which cross it. Elsewhere in central Scotland sucha wide depression is known as a howe, as in the Howe of Fife betweenthe Ochil and Lomond Hills. A glen is a narrower and steeper-sided

valley than a strath, though the names have not always been appliedwith discrimination. Most of the Highland valleys are true glens,Glencoe being the best-known example. The hills rise rapidly oneach side, sometimes in grassy slopes, sometimes in rocky bosses andprecipitous cliffs, while the bottom is occupied by a lake. In thesouth of Scotland the larger streams flow in wide open valleys calleddales, as in Clydesdale, Tweeddale, Teviotdale, Liddesdale, Eskdale,Nithsdale. The strips of alluvial land bordering a river are knownas haughs, and where in estuaries they expand into wide plains theyare termed carses. The carses of the Forth extend seawards as far asBo'ness and consist chiefly of raised beaches. The Carse of Gowrieis the strip of low ground intervening between the Firth of Tay andthe Sidlaw Hills. Brae signifies the steep bank of a river, and soany slope or hill-side.

River-gorges are characteristic features in many of the valleys.In the Old Red Sandstone they are particularly prominent whereRiver-gorges.that formation has lain in the pathway of the streamssweeping down from the Highlands. In the basin of theMoray Firth some fine examples may be seen on the Nairnand Findhorn, while on the west side of the Cromarty Firth some ofthe small streams descending from the high grounds of the east ofthe shire of Ross and Cromarty have cut out defiles in the Conglomerates,remarkable for their depth and narrowness. Towards thesouth margin of the Highlands notable instances of true canyons in theOld Red Sandstone are to be seen where the Isla and North Esk enterthat formation. The well-known gorge in which the Falls of Clydeare situated is the best example in the Lowlands. (For the chiefrivers see the separate articles on them, and also the section on thephysical features in the article on the different shires of Scotland.)

The topography of the country being the result of prolongeddenudation, it is reasonable to infer that the oldest surfaces likely toTypes of mountain and hill.be preserved are portions of some of the platforms oferosion successively established by the wearing down ofthe land to the sea-level. Relics of these platforms occurboth in the Highlands and among the Southern Uplands.Allusion has already been made to the flat-topped moorlands whichin the eastern Grampians reach heights of 3000 to 4000 ft. above thesea. The most familiar example perhaps is the top of Lochnagar,where, at the level of 3500 ft., the traveller finds himself on a broadundulating moor, more than a mile and a half long, sloping gentlytowards Glen Muick and terminating on the north in a range ofgranite precipices. The top of Ben Macdhui stands upon nearly asquare mile of moor exceeding 4000 ft. in elevation. These mountainslie within granite areas; but not less striking examples may be foundamong the schists. The mountains at the head of Glen Clova andGlen Isla, for instance, sweep upwards into a broad moor some 3000ft. above the sea, the more prominent parts of which have receivedspecial names—Driesh, Mayar, Tom Buidhe, Tolmount, Cairn naGlasha. It would hardly be an exaggeration to say that there ismore level ground on the tops of these mountains than in areas ofcorrespond in size in the valleys below. That these high plateausare planes of erosion is shown by their independence of geologicalstructure, the upturned edges of the vertical and contorted schistshaving been abruptly shorn off and the granite having been wastedand levelled along its exposed surface. Among the Southern Uplandsexist traces of a similar tableland of erosion. The top of BroadLaw on the confines of Peeblesshire and Selkirkshire, for example, isa level moor comprising between 300 and 400 acres above the contourline of 2500 ft. and lying upon the upturned edges of the greatlydenuded Silurian grits and shales. An instructive example of thesimilar destruction of a much younger platform is to be found in theterraced plateaus of Skye, Eigg, Canna, Muck, Mull and Morven,which are portions of what was probably originally a continuousplain of basalt. Though dating back only to older Tertiary time,this plain has been so deeply trenched by the forces of denudationthat it has been reduced to mere scattered fragments. Thousandsof feet of basalt have been worn away from many parts of its surface;deep and wide valleys have been carved out of it; and so enormouslyhas it been wasted, that it has been almost entirely stripped fromwide tracts which it formerly covered and where only scatteredoutliers remain to prove that it once existed.

It is curious that broad flat-topped mountains are chiefly to befound in the eastern parts of the country. Traced westwards, theseforms gradually give place to narrow ridges and crests. No contrast,for instance, can be greater than that between the wide elevatedmoors of the eastern Grampians, and the crested ridges of westernInverness-shire and Argyllshire—Loch Hourn, Glen Nevis, Glencoe—orthat between the broad uplands of Peeblesshire and the precipitousheights of Galloway. Geological structure alone will notaccount for these contrasts. Perhaps the cause is to be sought mainlyin differences of rainfall. The western mountains, exposed to thefierce lash of the Atlantic rains, sustain the heaviest and most constantprecipitation. Their sides are seamed with torrents which tear downthe solid rock and sweep its detritus into the glens and sea lochs. Theeastern heights, on the other hand, experience a smaller rainfall and consequentlya diminished rate of erosion. No doubt, too, the preponderanceof rainfall in the west has persisted for an enormous period.

Regarding the existing flat-topped heights among the easternGrampians as remnants of what was once the general character of thesurface, we can trace every step in the gradual obliteration of thetableland and in the formation of the most rugged and most individualizedforms of isolated mountain. In fact, in journeying westwardsacross the tops of the Highland mountains we pass, as it were,over successive stages in the history of the origin of Highland scenery.The oldest types of form lie on the east side and the newest on thewest. From the larger fragments of the denuded tableland weadvance to ridges with narrow tops, which pass by degrees intosharp rugged crests. The ridges, too, are more and more trencheduntil they become groups of detached hills or mountains. In theprogress of this erosion full scope has been afforded for the modificationof form by variation in geological structure. Each ridge andmountain has been cut into its shape by denudation, but its outlineshave been determined by the nature of the rocks and the manner inwhich they have yielded to decay. Every distinct variety of rockhas impressed its own character upon the landscape. Hence, amidthe monotonous succession of ridge beyond ridge and valley aftervalley, diversity of detail has resulted from the varying compositionand grouping of the rocks.

The process by which the ancient tablelands have been trenchedinto valleys and confident ridges is most instructively displayedamong the higher mountains, where erosion proceeds at an acceleratedpace. The long screes or talus-slopes at the foot of every cragand cliff bear witness to the continual waste. The headwaters of ariver cut into the slopes of the parent hill. Each valley is consequentlylengthened at the expense of the mountain from which itdescends. Where a number of small torrents converge in a steepmountain recess, they cut out a crescent-shaped hollow or half cauldron,which in the Scottish Highlands is known as a corrie. Itis doubtful whether the convergent action of the streams has beenthe sole agency in the erosion of these striking cavities, or whethersnow and glacier-ice have had a share in the work. No feature inHighland scenery is more characteristic than the corries, and in nonecan the influence of geological structure be better understood.Usually the upper part of a corrie is formed by a crescent of nakedrock, from which long trails of debris descend to the bottom of thehollow. Every distinct variety of rock has its own type of corrie,the peculiarities being marked both in the details of the upper cliffsand crags, and in the amount, form and colour of the screes. TheScottish corries have been occupied by glaciers. Hence theirbottoms are generally ice-worn or strewn over with moraine stuff.Sometimes a small tarn fills up the bottom, ponded back by amoraine. It is in such localities that we can best observe the lastrelics of the glaciers that once overspread the country. Among thesehigh grounds also the gradual narrowing of ridges into sharp, narrow,knife-edged crests and the lowering of these into cols or passes canbe admirably studied. Where two glens begin opposite to each otheron the same ridge, their corries are gradually cut back until only asharp crest separates them. This crest, attacked on each front andalong the summit, is lowered with comparative rapidity, until merelya low col or pass may separate the heads of the two glens. The variousstages in this kind of demolition are best seen where the underlyingrock is of granite or similarly tough material, which at the same timeis apt to be split and splintered by means of its numerous transversejoints. The granite mountains of Arran furnish excellent illustrations.

Where a rock yields to weather with considerable uniformity in alldirections it is likely to assume conical forms in the progress of denudation.Sometimes this uniformity is attained by a general disintegrationof the rock into fine debris, which rolls down the slopes inlong screes. In other cases it is secured by the intersection of joints,whereby a rock, in itself hard and durable, is divided into smallangular blocks, which are separated by the action of the elementsand slide down the declivities. In many instances the beginning ofthe formation of a cone may be detected on ridges which have beendeeply trenched by valleys. The smaller isolated portions, attackedon all sides, have broken up under weather. Layer after layer hasbeen stripped from their sides, and the flat or rounded top has beennarrowed until it has now become the apex of a cone. The mountainSchiehallion (3547 ft.) is an instance of a cone not yet freed from itsparent ridge. Occasionally a ridge has been carved into a series ofcones united at their bases, as in the chain of the Pentland Hills.A further stage in denudation brings us to isolated groups of conescompletely separated from the rest of the rocks among which theyonce lay buried. Such groups may be carved out of a continuousband of rock extending into the regions beyond. The Paps of Jura,for instance, rise out of a long belt of quartzite which stretchesthrough the islands of Islay, Jura and Scarba. In many cases,however, the groups point to the existence of some boss of rock ofgreater durability than those in the immediate neighbourhood, as inthe Cuchullins and Red Hills of Skye and the group of granite conesof Ben Loyal, Sutherland. The most impressive form of solitary coneis that wherein after vast denudation a thick overlying formation hasbeen reduced to a single outlier, such as Morven in Caithness, thetwo Bens Griam in Sutherland, and still more strikingly, the pyramidsof red sandstone on the western margin of the shires of Sutherlandand Ross and Cromarty. The horizontal stratification of some ofthese masses gives them a curiously architectural aspect, furtherincreased by the effect of the numerous vertical joints by which therock is cleft into buttresses and recesses along the fronts of theprecipices and into pinnacles and finials along the summits. Solitaryor grouped pyramids of red sandstone between 3000 and 4000 ft.

above the sea are mere remnants of a continuous sheet of red sandstonethat once spread far and wide over the western Highlands.

Stratified rocks when they have not been much disturbed fromtheir original approximate horizontality weather into escarpments.Such cliffs may run for many miles across a country, rising one aboveanother into lofty terraced hills. In Scotland the rocks have beenso dislocated and disturbed as to prevent the formation of continuousescarpments, and this form of rock-scenery is consequently almostentirely absent, except locally and for the most part on a comparativelysmall scale. The most extensive Scottish escarpments arefound among the igneous rocks. Where lava has been piled up insuccessive nearly horizontal sheets, with occasional layers of tuff orother softer rock between them, it offers conditions peculiarly favourablefor the formation of escarpments, as in the wide basalt plateausof the Inner Hebrides. The Carboniferous lavas of the Campsie andFintry Hills and of the south of Dumfriesshire and Roxburghshirelikewise rise in lines of bold escarpment.

The lakes and water-basins may be classified in four groups, eachLakes.with its own peculiar scenery and distinct mode oforigin—(1) glen lakes, (2) rock-tarns, (3) moraine-tarns, (4) lakesof the plains.

1. Glen lakes are those which occupy portions of glens. They aredepressions in the valleys, not due to local heaping up of detritus,but true rock-basins, often of great depth. Much discussion hasarisen as to their mode of origin, but it is probable they were causedby the erosive action of ice, since glaciers occupied the glens wherethey occur and wore down the rocks along the sides and bottom;but it is a point of difficulty in this theory whether ice could haveeroded the deepest of the hollows. In any circ*mstances the lakesmust be of recent geological date. Any such basins belonging to thetime of the folding of the crystalline schists would have been filledup and effaced long ago. Indeed, so rapid is the infilling by thetorrents which sweep down detritus from the surrounding heightsthat even the existing lakes are visibly diminishing. Glen lakes arealmost wholly confined to the western half of the Highlands, wherethey form the largest sheets of fresh water. Hardly any lakes are tobe seen east of a line drawn from Inverness to Perth. West of thatline, however, they abound in both the longitudinal and the transversevalleys. The most remarkable line of them is that which fillsup much of the Great Glen, Loch Ness being the largest. Other importantlongitudinal lakes are Lochs Tay, Awe, Ericht and Shiel.The most picturesque glen lakes, however, lie in transverse valleys,which being cut across the strike of the rocks present greater varietyand, usually, abruptness of outline. Lochs Lomond, Katrine andLubnaig in the southern Highlands, and Lochs Maree and More in thenorth, are conspicuous examples.

2. Rock-tarns are small lakes lying in rock-basins on the sides ofmountains or the summits of ridges, and on rocky plateaus or plains.Unlike glen lakes, they have no necessary dependence upon lines ofvalley, but are scattered as it were broadcast, and are by far themost abundant of the Scottish lakes. Dispersed over all parts of theWestern Highlands, they are most numerous in the north-west,especially in the Outer Hebrides and in the west of the shires of Rossand Cromarty and Sutherland, where the surface of the Archeangneiss is so thickly sprinkled with them that many tracts consistnearly as much of water as of land. They almost invariably lie onstrongly ice-worn platforms of rock, and are obviously hollowsproduced by the gouging action of the sheets of land-ice by whichthe general glaciation of the country was affected. In the SouthernUplands, owing to the greater softness and uniformity of texture ofthe rocks, rock-tarns are comparatively infrequent, except inGalloway, where the protrusion of granite and its associated metamorphismhave reproduced Highland conditions of rock-structure.In the rocky hill-ranges of the Central Plain rock-tarns occasionallymake their appearance.

3. Moraine-tarns—small sheets of water ponded back by someof the last moraines shed by the retreating glaciers—are confined tothe more mountainous tracts. Among the Southern Uplands thebest-known and one of the most picturesque is the wild and lonelyLoch Skene, lying in a recess of Whitecoomb at the head of MoffatWater. Others are sprinkled over the higher parts of the valleys inGalloway. None occurs in the Central Plain. In the Highlands theymay be counted by hundreds, nestling in the bottoms ofgthe corries.In the north-western counties, where the glaciers continued longestto descend to the sea-level, lakes retained by moraine-barriers maybe found very little above the sea.

4. The Lakes of the Plains lie in hollows of the glacial detrituswhich is strewn so thickly over the lower grounds. As these hollowswere caused by original irregular deposition rather than by erosion,they have no intimate relation to the present drainage-lines. Thelakes vary in size from mere pools to sheets of water several squaremiles in area. As a rule they are shallow in proportion to theirextent and surface. They were once more numerous than they arenow, but some have disappeared through natural causes and othershave been drained. The largest sheets of fresh water in the Lowlandsare lakes of the plains as Loch Leven and the Lake of Menteith.

The eastern and western seaboards present a singular contrast.The eastern is indented by a series of broad arms of the sea—thefirths of Forth and Tay, Moray and Dornoch firths—but is otherwiserelatively unbroken. The land slopes gently to the sea or to theedge of cliffs that nave been cut back by the waves. The shores arefor the most part low, with few islands in front of them, and cultivationCoast-line.comes down almost to the tide-line. The westernside, on the contrary, is from end to end intersected withlong narrow sea lochs or fjords. The land shelves downrapidly into the sea and is fronted by chains and groups of islands.The explanation of this contrast must be sought in geologicalstructure. The west side, as we have seen, has been more deeplyeroded than the eastern. The glens are more numerous there and onthe whole deeper and narrower. Many of them are prolonged underthe sea; in other words, the narrow deep fjords are seaward continuationsof the glens. The presence of the sea in these fjords is anaccident. If they could be raised out of the sea they would becomeglens, with lakes filling their deeper portions. That this has beentheir history hardly admits of question. They are submerged land-valleys,and as they run down the whole western coast they showthat this side has subsided to a considerable depth beneath its formerlevel. The Scottish sea lochs must be considered in connexion withthose of western Ireland and Norway. The whole of this north-westerncoast-line of Europe bears witness to recent submergence.The bed of the North Sea, which at no distant date in geologicalhistory was a land surface across which plants and animals migratedfreely into Great Britain, sank beneath the sea-level, while theAtlantic advanced upon the western margin of the continent andfilled the seaward ends of what had previously been valleys open tothe sun. In this view the Outer and Inner Hebrides were formerlyone with themselves and the mainland, and the western isles thereforeare truly grouped with the Highland province of Scotland. Nearlythe whole coast-line is rocky. On the east indeed, the shores of theestuaries are generally low, but the land between the mouths of theseinlets is more or less precipitous. On the west the coast is mostlyeither a steep rocky declivity or a sea-wall, though strips of lowerground are found in the bays. The cliffs vary in character accordingto the nature of the rock. At Cape Wrath, precipices 300 ft. highhave been cut out of the Archean gneiss. The varying texture ofthis rock, its irregular foliation and jointing, and its ramifying veinsof pegmatite give it very unequal powers of resistance. Here itprojects in irregular bastions and buttresses, there retires into deeprecesses and tunnels, but shows everywhere a ruggedness of aspecteminently characteristic. In striking contrast to these precipices arethose of the Cambrian red sandstone a few miles to the east. Vastvertical walls of rock shoot up to a height of 600 ft., cut by theirperpendicular joints into quadrangular piers and projections, someof which stand out alone as cathedral-like islets in front of the maincliff. The sombre colouring is relieved by vegetation along the edgesof the nearly flat beds which project like great cornices and serve asnesting-places for sea-fowl. On the west the most notable cliffssouth of those of Cape Wrath and the Cambrian sandstones ofSutherland are to be found among the basaltic islands, particularly inSkye, where a magnificent range of precipices rising to 1000 ft.bounds the western coast-line. However, the highest cliffs are foundamong the Shetland and Orkney Islands. The sea-wall of Foula, inShetland, and the western front of Hoy, in Orkney, rise like walls toheights of 1100 or 1200 ft. Caithness is one wide moor, terminatingalmost everywhere seaward in a range of precipices of Old RedSandstone. Along the eastern coast most of the cliffs are formed ofrocks belonging to this formation. Beginning at Stonehaven, analmost unbroken line of precipice varying up to 200 ft. in height runsto the mouth of the estuary of the Tay. On the east the SouthernUplands plunge abruptly into the sea near St Abb's Head in a noblerange of precipices 300 to 500 ft. in height, and on the west terminatein a long broken line of sea-wall, which begins at the mouth of LochRyan, extends to the Mull of Galloway, and reappears again in thesouthern headlands of Wigtown and Kirkcudbright. Among themost picturesque features of Scottish sea-cliffs are the numerousstacks or columns of rock which during the demolition and cutting backof the precipices have been isolated and left standing amidstthe waves. These remnants attain their most colossal size and heighton the cliffs of Old Red Sandstone. Thus the Old Man of Hoy inOrkney is a huge column of yellow sandstone between 400 and500 ft. high, forming a conspicuous landmark in the north. The coastof Caithness abounds in outstanding pillars and obelisks of flagstone.

The low shores on the west coast are frequently occupied by sand-dunes,as on the western margin of North and South Uist, and inmany bays from the north of Sutherland to the coast of Ayrshire.They are more abundant on the east coast, however, especially on theshores of Aberdeenshire, between the mouths of the two Esks inForfarshire, on both sides of the mouth of the Firth of Tay, and atvarious places on the Firth of Forth. Raised sea-beaches likewiseplay a part in the coast scenery. These alluvial terraces form a stripof low fertile land between the edge of the sea and the rising groundof the interior, and among the western fjords sometimes supply theonly arable soil in their neighbourhood, their flat green surfacespresenting a strong contrast to the brown and barren moors that risefrom them. Most of the seaport towns stand upon platforms ofraised beach. Considerable deposits of mud, silt and sand are accumulatingin many of the estuaries. In the Tay, Forth and Clyde,where important harbours are situated, great expense is involved inconstantly dredging to remove the sediment continually broughtdown from the land and carried backwards and forwards by the tides.

While no islands except mere solitary rocks like May Island, the Bass Rock and Inchkeith diversify the eastern seaboard, the western presents a vast number, varying from such extensive tracts as Skye to the smallest stack or skerry. Looked at in the broadest way, these numerous islands may be regarded as belonging to two groups or series, the Outer and the Inner Hebrides. In the Outer Hebrides most of the ground is low, rocky and plentifully dotted over with lakes; but it rises into mountainous heights in Harris, some of the summits attaining elevations of 2600 ft. The general trend of this long belt of islands is north-north-east. The Inner Hebrides form a much less definite group. They may be regarded as beginning with the Shiant Isles in the Minch and stretching to the southern headlands of Islay, and their irregularity has no doubt been chiefly brought about by the remarkable diversity of geological structure. Archean gneiss, Cambrian sandstone, Silurian quartzite, limestone and schist, Jurassic sandstone and limestone. Cretaceous sandstone, and Tertiary basalts, gabbros, and granitic rocks all enter into the composition of the islands.

Influence of Topography.—The influence of the topography of the country on the history of its inhabitants has been all-important. How power full the configuration affects the climate is shown in the remarkable difference between the rainfall of the mountainous west and of the lowland east. This difference has necessarily modified the character and employment of the people, leading to the cultivation of the soil on the one side and the raising of sheep and cattle on the other. The fertile low grounds on the east have offered facilities for the invasions of Romans, Norsem*n and English, while the mountain fastnesses of the interior and the west have served as secure retreats for the older Celtic population. While, therefore, Teutonic people have spread over the one area, the earlier race has to this day maintained its ground in the other. Not only external configuration but geological structure also has profoundly influenced the progress of the inhabitants. In the Highlands no mineral wealth has been discovered to stimulate the industry of the natives or to attract labour and capital. These tracts remain still, as of old, sparsely inhabited and given over to the breeding of stock and the pursuit of game. In the Lowlands, on the other hand, rich stores of coal, iron, lime and other minerals have been found. The coal-fields have gradually drawn to them an ever-increasing share of the population. Villages and towns have suddenly developed and rapidly increased in size. Manufactures and shipbuilding have grown and commerce has advanced with accelerated pace. Other influences have of course contributed largely to the development of the country, but among them all the chief place must be assigned to that fortunate geological structure which, amid the revolutions of the past, has preserved in the centre of Scotland those fields of coal and ironstone which are the foundations of the national industry.

Geology.

Archean Rocks.—The oldest rocks of Scotland and of the British Isles are known, from their antiquity, as Archean, and consist chiefly of gneiss (called Fundamental, as lying at the foundation of the geological structure of the country, and Lewisian and Hebridean, because it is well developed in the island of Harris and the Outer Hebrides), which varies from a coarsely crystalline granitoid mass to fine schist. The coarse varieties are most abundant, intermingled with bands of hornblende-rock, hornblende-schist, pegmatite, eucrite, mica-schist, sericite-schist and other schistose accompaniments. In a few places limestone has been observed. No trace of any organism has ever been detected in any of these rocks. Over wide areas, particularly on the mainland, the bands of gneiss have a general north-west trend and undulate in frequent plications with variable inclination to north-east and south-west. The largest tract of Archean rock is that which forms almost the whole of the Outer Hebrides, from Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis. Other areas more or less widely separated from each other run down the western parts of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty, and are probably continued at least as far as the island of Rum.

Eastern or Younger Schists.—The central, southern and eastern Highlands are occupied by metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous rocks, to which has been provisionally assigned the name of Dalradian, from the old Celtic kingdom of Dalriada. Their true stratigraphical position has not yet been ascertained, and it may appear that more than one group of rocks is included in the series. Eastward of the Archean gneiss in the west of Sutherland the effect of enormous underground pressure has been to upraise masses of the ancient gneiss and Torridonian sandstone and thrust them westward over the younger rocks. It is not possible to say what was the original character of many of the disrupted materials, for they have been rearranged and re-crystallized into granulitic, flaggy gneisses and schists (Moine schists). The extend from the north-east of Sutherland as far south as the Sound of Mull. To the east of the dislocation of the Great Glen these puzzling rocks may also be met with, though in that tract most of the surface comprises sedimentary and igneous rocks, the metamorphism of which has varied much. Immense sheets of dolerite, gabbro, or allied basic rocks indicate eruptive materials intruded as sills or poured out as lavas contemporaneously with the sedimentary formations among which they lie. On the other hand, there occur bands of conglomerate, pebbly grit, quartzite,graphitic shale and limestone in a certain ordered sequence and over a wide area. Traces of annelids have been detected in some of the quartzites, and some of the less changed parts of the limestones may be searched for fossils. This great series of metamorphic rocks, the geological age of which is still unsettled, has had a powerful effect on the scenery, especially along-the Highland line. Where a thick group of coarse hard grits intercalated in the sedimentary rocks crops out it rises into a chain of lofty rugged hills, of which Ben Ledi and Ben Vorlich are examples. The slate hills, weathering more readily, assume gentle slopes and rounded ridges, as in the high land from Holy Loch to the Kyles of Bute. The quartzite's rise in conical hills, such as those of Jura and Islay. And to the soil created by the decay of the limestones is due a greener verdure than that of the surrounding moors.

Emery Walker sc.

Torridonian Sandstone.—Above the Archean gneiss lies a series of red and chocolate-coloured sandstone (Torridon sandstone), which form a number of detached areas from Cape Wrath down the seaboard of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty, across Skye, and as far as the island of Rum. They rise into prominent pyramidal mountains, which, as the stratification is usually almost horizontal, present in their terraced sides a singular contrast to the neighbouring heights, composed of highly plicated crystalline schists. In the Torridon district they can be seen towering bed above bed to a height of about 4000 ft., but they must be at least 10,000 ft. thick. They are not met with anywhere else in Scotland. Traces of annelids and probably other organisms have been found in the bands of shale occurring in the south-west of the shire of Ross and Cromarty, in the isle of Raasay, and at Cailleach Head, and are the oldest relics of animal life yet found in Great Britain.

Cambrian.—In the north-western Highlands masses of white quartzite, resting unconformable in Torridonian sandstone, run from Loch Eriboll to Skye, forming in places great conical hills and

sometimes capping isolated mountains of red Torridon sandstone. Theyconstitute the lowest group of the most interesting series of strata inthe Highlands, and yield a large number of fossils. In descendingorder they embrace the following subdivisions, whose thickness inthe district of Durness is estimated at about 2000 ft.: (e) limestones,dolomites and cherts, with numerous organic remains; (d) grit andquartzite, with Saltarella and Olenellus (Serpulite Grit); (c) calcareousshales and dolomites, with many annelid casts and sometimesOlenellus (Fucoid Beds); (b) Upper Quartzite, often crowded withannelid pipes (Pipe Rock Quartzite); (a) Lower Quartzite—theiroriginal upper limit can nowhere be seen, for they have been overriddenby the Eastern Schists in those gigantic underground disturbancesalready referred to, by which these rocks, the Archeangneiss and Torridonian sandstone, were crumpled, inverted, dislocatedand thrust over each other. The quartzite's themselves havealso been subjected to extraordinary horizontal displacement,amounting in places to not less than 10 m. The rocks overlying themto the east of the line of disturbance in the shires of Sutherland andRoss and Cromarty are fine flaggy schists. The Cambrian system—includingthe Upper (Durness-Eriboll Limestone) and the Lower(Serpulite grit, Fucoid Beds, Quartzite)—forms a narrow bandwhich can be traced for 100 m. from the north coast of Sutherland toSkye. Rocks of Cambrian age have not been identified elsewhere inScotland, though it may ultimately be shown that the quartzites andlimestones of the Central Highlands are equivalents of those of thenorth-west coast.

Ordovician and Silurian.—In the Southern Uplands a great developmentof Ordovician and Silurian rocks is found. In that beltthey consist mostly of greywacke, grit, shale and other sedimentaryrocks, but in the southwest of Ayrshire they include some thicklenticular bands of limestone. They have been thrown into manyfolds, the long axes of which run in a general north-easterly direction.It is this structure which has determined the trend of the southernUplands. The plications of the Highlands and the chief dislocationsof the country have followed the same general direction, and hencethe parallelism and north-easterly trend of the main topographicalfeatures. Abundant fossils (grapholites principally) in certain partsof these rocks have shown that representatives of both the Ordovicianand Upper divisions are present. By far the larger part of the Uplandsbelongs to the former. The Upper Silurian shales and sandstonesappear only along the northern and southern margins. Thecoast on both sides of the country shows good sections of the rocks,the Berwickshire cliffs being particularly fine. Those of Ayrshire andGalloway are lower and more accessible, and permit of study of theplication of the strata. Among the best localities for fossils areMoffat Water, in Dumfriesshire, for graptolites, and the Pentlands, inMidlothian. Balmae, on the southern shore of Kirkcudbrightshire,the coast south of Girvan and the limestone quarries of the Stincharand Girvan valleys, in Ayrshire, for shells, trilobites, corals, &c.

Old Red Sandstone.—Scotland is the typical European region forthe deposits classed as Old Red Sandstone. These rocks are groupedin two divisions, Lower and Upper, both of which appear to havebeen deposited in lakes. The Lower, with its abundant intercalatedlavas and tuffs, extends continuously as a broad belt along thenorthern margin of the Central Plain, reappears in detached tractsalong the southern border, is found again on the south side of theUplands in Berwickshire and the Cheviot Hills, occupies a tract ofLorne (Oban and the vicinity) in Argyllshire, and on the north side ofthe Highlands underlies most of the low ground on both sides ofthe Moray Firth, stretches across Caithness and through nearly thewhole of the Orkney Islands, and is prolonged into Shetland. TheUpper Old Red Sandstone covers a more restricted space in mostof the areas just mentioned, its chief development being on theflanks of the north-eastern part of the Southern Uplands, where itspreads out over the Lammermuir Hills and the valleys of Berwickshireand Roxburghshire. The Lower Old Red Sandstone is rich inremains of plants and fishes, notably in the Hagstones of Caithness,Orkney and Forfarshire. The volcanic rocks of this division formranges of hills in the Lowlands, such as the Pentlands, Ochils andSidlaws. They have in some places a thickness of 7000 ft. The lavasare usually porphyrites, which occur in sheets, with intercalatedbands of volcanic tuff that are sometimes strongly felsitic. One of thevents by which such materials were ejected occurs in the Braid Hillson the south side of Edinburgh. Fossils are less common in the UpperOld Red Sandstone, though they are found—particularly fishes—inlarge numbers in certain spots, as at Dura Den, near Cupar-Fife.Traces of contemporaneous volcanic action exist in the Orcadianisland of Hoy.

Carboniferous.—The areas occupied by Carboniferous rocks arealmost entirely restricted to the Central Plain or Lowlands, but theyare also found skirting the Southern Uplands from the mouth of theTweed to that of the Nith. In the basins of the Forth and Clyde thefollowing subdivisions are well marked: (5) Upper Red Sandstoneseries (red and grey sandstones, fire clays, shales, marls); (4) CoalMeasures (white and grey sandstones, dark shales, fire clays, coalseams, ironstones); (3) Millstone Grit (massive sandstones and grits,with fire clays, thin limestones and coal); (2) Carboniferous Limestoneseries—(c) sandstones and shales, with three or more seams oflimestone; (b) sandstones, shales, coals and ironstones, but with nolimestone bands; (a) sandstones, shales, fire clays, coals andironstones,with thin limestones towards the top and the Hurlet (Renfrewshire)limestone at the bottom; (1) Calciferous Sandstone series—(b)Upper or Cement Stone group, consisting of white and greysandstones (of which the city of Edinburgh was built), black shales,thin limestones (Burdiehouse, near Edinburgh), and occasional coalseams; (a) Lower Red Sandstone group, with reddish and greenishmarls and shales, passing down with the Upper Old Red Sandstone.The coal-fields contain two main groups of seams, the lower in themiddle section of the Carboniferous Limestone, and the upper in theCoal Measures. The thin seams of the Calciferous Sandstone are notworkable, but the bituminous shales in the Firth of Forth basin arelargely worked for the manufacture of mineral oil. The plant-lifeof the Carboniferous was exceedingly luxuriant and varied, and thesystem is rich also in fossils of fishes, crustaceans, mollusca, insectsand other forms of animal life. There was great volcanic activityduring the deposition of the Calciferous Sandstone, CarboniferousLimestone and Millstone Grit series. The two leading types ofvolcanic areas are the plateaus, in which sheets of porphyrites, basaltsand even trachytes were emitted, sometimes with wide discharge ofvolcanic ashes, and the puys, or isolated vents, or scattered groups ofvents, which discharge comparatively a small amount of lava andashes. The Campsie, Kilpatrick and Dumbarton hills, the highground from Greenock to Ardrossan, and the Carleton Hills in EastLothian are examples of the plateaus, while Arthur's Seat inEdinburgh and the Binn of Burntisland illustrate the puys. Mostof the hills and crags in the Carboniferous area are volcanic, and manyof them—such as the castle rocks of Edinburgh and Stirling, BinnyCraig in Linlithgowshire, North Berwick Law and the Bass Rock—markthe sites of actual events of eruption.

Permian.—Rocks assignable to the Permian system occupy onlya few small areas in Scotland. They fill up the valley of the Nith fora few miles north of Dumfries, and, reappearing again in the samevalley a little farther north, run up the narrow valley of the Carron tothe Lowther Hills. Other detached tracts cover a considerable spacein Annandale, one of them ascending the deep defile, known as theDevil's Beef Tub, at the head of that valley. Another isolated patchoccurs among the Lead Hills; and lastly, a considerable space in theheart of the Ayrshire coal-field is occupied by Permian rocks.Throughout these separate basins the prevailing rock is a red sandstone,varied in the narrow valleys with intercalated masses ofbreccia. There can be no doubt that the valleys in which thesepatches of red rocks lie already existed in Permian time. They seemthen to have been occupied by small lakes or inlets, not unlikefjords. Numerous amphibian tracks have been found in the redsandstone of Annandale and also near Dumfries, but no other tracesof the life of the time. One of the most interesting features of theScottish development of the Permian system is the occurrence ofintercalated bands of contemporaneously erupted volcanic rocks inthe Carron, Nithsdale and Ayrshire. The actual vents which werethe sites of the small volcanoes still remain distinct, and the eruptedlavas form high ground in the middle of Ayrshire.

Triassic.—The Triassic system is only feebly represented. Thelargest tract occurs in the south of Dumfriesshire between Annan andthe head of the Solway Firth. To this division are assigned theyellow sandstones of Elgin, which have yielded crocodilian and otherreptilian remains, the discovery of which led to the rocks beingseparated from the Upper Old Red Sandstone, to which they hadpreviously been thought to belong. There occur also below the Liason some parts of the west coast unfossiliferous red sandstones,conglomerates and breccias, presenting lithological resemblance to theRhaetic group of England. Such strata are well seen in the isle ofRaasay and near Heast in Skye. Red sandstones and conglomerates,probably of the same age, attain a thickness of several hundred feetat Gruinard Bay on the west coast of the county of Ross andCromarty. On the east side of Scotland, where so many fragmentsof the Secondary rocks occur as boulders in the glacial deposits, alarge mass of strata was formerly exposed at Linksfield to the northof Elgin, containing fossils which appear to show it to belong to theRhaetic beds at the top of the Trias. But it was not in place, and wasprobably a mass transported by ice. Rhaetic strata no doubt existin situ at no great distance under the North Sea.

Jurassic.—The Jurassic system—comprising, in descending order,the subdivisions of Upper Oolites (Portlandian Kimmeridge Clay),Middle Oolites (coal limestones; Oxford clay), Lower Oolites (GreatOolite series; Inferior Oolite series), Lias (Upper, Middle, Lower)—iswell represented on both sides of the Highlands. Along the eastcoast of Sutherland good sections are exposed showing the successionof strata. Among these the Lower and Middle Lias can be identifiedby their fossils. The Lower Oolite is distinguished by the occurrencein it of some coal-seams, one of which, 3½ ft. in thickness, has beenworked at Brora. The Middle Oolite consists mostly of sandstoneswith bands of shale and limestones, and includes fossils which indicatethe English horizons from the Kellaways Rock up to the Coral Rag.The lower part of the Kimmeridge Clay is probably represented bysandstones and conglomerates, forming the highest beds of the seriesin Sutherland. On the west side of the Highlands Jurassic rocks arefound in many detached areas from the Shiant Isles to the southernshores of Mull. Over much of this region they owe their preservationlargely to the mass of lavas poured over them in Tertiary time.They have been uncovered, indeed, only at a comparatively recent

geological date. They comprise a consecutive series of deposits from the bottom of the Lias up to the Oxford Clay. The Lower, Middle and Upper Lias consist chiefly of shales and shelly limestones, with some sandstones, well seen along the shores of Broadford Bay in Skye and in some of the adjacent islands. The Lower Oolites are made up of sandstones and shales with some limestones, and are overlaid by several hundred feet of an estuarine series of deposits consisting chiefly of thick white sandstones, below and above which lie shales and shelly limestones. These rocks form a prominent feature underneath the basalt terraces of the east side of Skye, Raasay and Eigg. They form the highest members of the Jurassic series, representing probably some part of the Oxford Clay. The next Secondary rocks (Cretaceous) succeed them unconformably.

Cretaceous.—Rocks belonging to the Cretaceous system at one time covered considerable areas on both sides of the Highlands, but they have been entirely stripped off the eastern side, while on the western they have been reduced to a few fragmentary patches, which have survived because of the overlying sheets of basalt that have protected them. Some greenish sandstones containing recognizable and characteristic fossils are the equivalents of the Upper Greensand of the south of England. These rocks are found on the south and west coasts of Mull and on the west coast of Argyllshire. They are covered by white sandstones and these by white chalk and marly beds, which represent the Upper Chalk of England. Their existence under the basalt outlier of Ben Iadain in Morven, at a height of 1600 ft. above the sea, shows notably how extensively they have been denuded, but also over how large a portion of the Western Highland seaboard they may have spread. They are a prolongation of the Cretaceous deposits of Antrim (Ireland). Enormous numbers of flints and also less abundant fragments of chalk are found in glacial deposits bordering the Moray Firth. These transported relics show that the Chalk must once have been in place at no great distance, if indeed it did not actually occupy part of Aberdeenshire and the neighbouring counties.

Older Tertiary.—Above the highest Secondary rocks on the west coast come terraced plateaus of basalt, which spread out over wide areas in Skye, Eigg, Mull and Morven, and form most of the smaller islets of the chain of the Inner Hebrides. These plateaus are composed of nearly horizontal sheets of basalt—columnar, amorphous or amygdaloidal—which, in Ben More, in Mull, attain a thickness of more than 3000 ft. They are prolonged southwards into Antrim, where similar basalts overlying Secondary strata cover a large territory. Occasional beds of tuff are intercalated among these lavas, and likewise seams of line clay or shale which have preserved the remains of numerous land-plants. The presence of these fossils indicates that the eruptions were subaërial, and a comparison of them with those elsewhere found among Older Tertiary strata shows that they probably belong to the Oligocene stage of the Tertiary series of formations, and therefore that the basalt eruptions took place in early Tertiary time. The volcanic episode to which these plateaus owe their origin was one of the most important in the geological history of Great Britain. It appears to have resembled in its main features those remarkable outpourings of basalt which have deluged so many thousand square miles of the western area of the United States. The eruptions were connected with innumerable fissures up which the basalt rose and from numerous points on which it flowed out at the surface. These fissures with the basalt that solidified in them now form the vast assemblage of dykes which cross Scotland, the north of England and the north of Ireland. That the Volcanic period was a prolonged one is shown by the great denudation of the plateaus before the last eruptions took place. In the Isle of Eigg, for example, the basalts had already been deeply eroded by river-action and into the river-course a current of glassy lava (pitch-stone) flowed. Denudation has continued active ever since, and now, owing to greater hardness and consequent power of resistance, the glassy lava stands up as the prominent and picturesque ridge of the Scuir, while the basalts which formerly rose high above it have been worn down into terraced declivities that slope away from it to the sea. A remarkable feature in the volcanic phenomena was the disruption of the basaltic plateaus by large bosses of gabbro and of various granitoid rocks. These intrusive masses now tower into conspicuous groups of hills—the Cuillins in Skye, the mountains of Rum and Mull, and the rugged heights of Ardnamurchan.

Post-Tertiary.—Under the Post-Tertiary division come the records of the Ice Age, when Scotland was buried under sheets of ice which ground down, striated and polished the harder rocks over the whole country, and left behind them the widespread accumulation of clay, gravel and sand known as Glacial Deposits. The Till or Boulder Clay, the most universal kind of Drift—which covers much of the Lowlands to a depth sometimes of 100 ft., and along the flanks of hills reaches a height of 2000 ft. or more—was pushed along by ice radiating from different centres, evidence of which is to be seen in the direction of the striae on the rocky surface of the country as well as in the dispersion of boulders and stones from recognizable districts. Thus remains of Highland schists have been borne across the Central Plain and deposited on the northern margin of the Southern Uplands. Above the Boulder Clay are found sands and gravels, along with perched boulders which, by their source and position, indicate the direction and thickness of the ice that carried) them. Moraines of the last of the glaciers are numerous throughout the Highlands.

Recent.—The youngest formations are the raised beaches—consisting sometimes of ledges cut in the rock, as on Lismore and other parts of Loch Linnhe, and sometimes of heaped-up beds of sand and gravel—river terraces, lake deposits, peat-mosses, tracts of blown sand—notably seen in the dunes of Culbin, Rattray Head, Aberdeen, Montrose and Tents Muir on the east coast, and at Stevenston, Troon, Ayr, Glenluce and along North and South Uist on the west. These are related to the present configuration of the land and contain remains of plants and animals still living on its surface.

{{1911 Encyclopædia Britannica|name[1..4]=author name|initials[1..4]=initals}}

Climate

In considering the climate of Scotland the first place must be assigned to the temperature of various districts during the months of the year, since this, and not the mean temperature of the whole year, gives the chief characteristics of climate. Thus, while the annual temperatures of the west and east coasts are nearly equal, the summer and winter temperatures are very different. At Portree (on the east coast of Skye) the mean temperatures of January and July are 39° and 56.8° F., whereas at Perth they are 37.5° and 59.0°. The prominent feature of the isotherms of the winter months is their north and south direction, thus pointing not to the sun but to the warm waters of the Atlantic as the more powerful influence in determining the climate at this season through the agency of the prevailing westerly winds. In exceptionally cold seasons the ocean protects all places in its more immediate neighbourhood against the severe frosts which occur in inland situations. While this influence of the ocean is felt at all seasons, it is most strikingly seen in winter and is more decided in proportion as the locality is surrounded by the warm waters of the Atlantic. The influence of the North Sea is similarly apparent, but in a less degree. Along the whole of the eastern coast, from the Pentland Firth southwards, temperature is higher than what is found a little inland. In summer, everywhere, latitude for latitude, temperature is lower in the west than in the east and inland situations, but in winter the inland climates are the colder. The course of the isothermal lines in summer is very instructive. Thus the line of 59° passes from the Solway directly northwards to the north of Perthshire and thence curves round eastward to near Stonehaven. From Teviotdale to the Grampians temperature falls only one degree; but for the same distance farther northwards it falls three degrees. The isothermal of 56° marks off the districts where the finer cereals can be successfully raised. This distribution of the temperature shows that the influence of the Atlantic in moderating the heat of summer is very great and is felt a long way into the interior of the country. On the other hand, the highlands of western districts by robbing the westerly winds of their moisture, and thus clearing the skies of eastern districts, exercise an equally striking effect in the opposite direction—in raising the temperature.

There is nearly twice as much wind from the south-west as from the north-east, but the proportions vary greatly in different months. The south-west prevails from July to October, and again from December to February; accordingly in these months the rainfall is heaviest. These are the summer and winter portions of the year, and an important result of the prevalence of these winds, with their accompanying rains, which are coincident with the annual extremes of temperature, is to imprint a more strictly insular character on the climate, by moderating the heat of summer and the cold of winter. The north-east winds acquire their greatest frequency from March to June and in November, which are accordingly the driest portions of the year.

The mountainous regions are mostly massed in the west and lie generally north and south, or approximately facing the rain-bringing winds from the Atlantic. Thus the climates of the west are essentially wet. On the other hand, the climates of the east are dry, because the surface is lower and more level; and the breezes borne thither from the west, being robbed of most of their superabundant moisture in crossing the western hills, are drier and precipitate a greatly diminished rainfall. It thus happens that the driest climates in the east are those which have to south-westwards the broadest extent of mountainous ground, and that the wettest eastern climates are those which are least protected by high lands on the west. The breakdown of the watershed between the Firths of Clyde and Forth exposes southern Perthshire, the counties of Clackmannan and Kinross, and nearly the whole of Fife to the clouds and rains of the west, and their climates are consequently wetter than those of any others of the eastern slopes of the country. The driest climates of the east are in Tweeddale about Kelso and Jedburgh, the low grounds of East Lothian, and those on the Moray Firth from Elgin round to Dornoch. In these districts the annual rainfall averages 26 in., whereas over extensive breadths in the west it exceeds 100 in., in Glencroe being nearly 130 in., and on the top of Ben Nevis it may reach 150 in.

II. Economic Conditions, &c.

Population.—At the end of the 15th century it is conjectured that the population of Scotland did not exceed 500,000—Edinburgh having about 20,000 inhabitants, Perth about 9000, and Aberdeen, Dundee and St Andrews about 4000 each. By the Union with England (1707) the population is supposed to

have grown to 1,000,000. In 1755, according to the returns furnished by the clergy to the Rev. Dr Alexander Webster (1707–1784), minister of the Tron Kirk, Edinburgh—who had been commissioned by Lord President Dundas to prepare a census for government,—it was 1,265,380. At the first government census (1801) it had reached 1,608,420. The increase at succeeding decades has been continuous though fluctuating in amount, and in 1901 the population amounted to 4,472,103 (females, 2,298,348). In 1902 the Registrar-General for Scotland calculated that if the rate of increase (11·09%) manifest during 1891–1901 were uniformly maintained, the population would double itself in the course of about 66 years.

Table I.Area and Population of Civil Counties in 1891 and 1901.
CivilCounties.Area in
Acres.
Population.Pop.per
sq. m.
1901.
1891.1901.
I. Northern.
 1. Shetland352,88928,71128,16651  
 2. Orkney240,47630,45328,69976  
 3. Caithness438,87837,17733,87049  
 4. Sutherland1,297,84921,89621,44011  
2,330,092118,237112,17531  
II. North-Western.
 5. Ross and Cromarty1,976,70778,72776,45025  
 6. Inverness2,695,03790,12190,10421  
4,671,744168,848166,55423  
III. North-Eastern.
 7. Nairn103,4299,1559,29157  
 8. Elgin (or Moray)305,11943,47144,89094  
 9. Banff403,36461,68461,48898  
10. Aberdeen1,261,887284,036304,439154  
11. Kincardine243,97435,49240,923107  
2,317,773433,838460,941127  
IV. East Midland.
12. Forfar559,171277,735284,082325  
13. Perth1,595,774122,185123,28349  
14. Fife322,844190,365218,840434  
15. Kinross52,4106,6736,98185  
16. Clackmannan34,92733,14032,029587  
2,565,126630,098665,215166  
V. West Midland.
17. Stirling288,842118,021142,291315  
18. Dumbarton157,43398,014113,865463  
19. Argyll1,990,47174,08573,64224  
20. Bute139,65818,40418,78786  
2,576,404308,524348,58587  
VI. South-Western.
21. Renfrew153,332230,812268,9801123  
22. Ayr724,523226,386254,468225  
23. Lanark562,8211,105,8991,339,3271523  
1,440,6761,563,0971,862,775827  
VII. South-Eastern.
24. Linlithgow76,86152,80865,708547  
25. Edinburgh234,339434,276488,7961335  
26. Haddington171,01137,37738,665145  
27. Berwick292,57732,29030,82467  
28. Peebles222,59914,75015,06643  
29. Selkirk170,76227,71223,35688  
1,168,149599,213662,415363  
VIII. Southern.
30. Roxburgh426,06053,50048,80473  
31. Dumfries686,30274,24572,57168  
32. Kirkcudbright575,56539,98539,38344  
33. Wigtown311,60936,06232,68567  
Grand Total1,999,536203,792193,44362  
Scotland19,069,5004,025,6474,472,103150  

In 1901 there were 150 persons to each square mile, and 4·3 acres (excluding inland waters, tidal rivers and foreshore) to each person. The distribution of population is illustrated in the preceding table, which gives the names and areas of the counties and other particulars.

In the northern, north-western and southern divisions the population declined during the decade, the fifteen counties thus affected being, in the order of decrease, beginning with the shire in which it was smallest, Inverness, Banff, Argyll, Kirkcudbright, Shetland, Sutherland, Dumfries, Ross and Cromarty, Clackmannan, Berwick, Orkney, Roxburgh, Caithness, Wigtown and Selkirk. It will thus be seen that the far north and far south alike decreased in population, the decline being largely due to physical conditions, though it need not be supposed that the limit of population was reached in either area. The most sparsely inhabited county was Sutherland, the most densely Lanark. The counties in which there was the largest increase in the decennial period—with Linlithgow first, followed by Lanark, Stirling, Renfrew, Dumbarton and thirteen others—principally belonged to the Central Plain, or Lowlands, in which, broadly stated, industries and manufactures, trade, commerce and agriculture and educational facilities have attained their highest development. In every county the population increased between 1801 and 1841, the increase being more than 10% in each county with the exception of Argyll, Perth and Sutherland. After 1841, however, the population in several Highland shires—in which the clearance of crofters to make way for deer was one of the most strongly-felt grievances among the Celtic part of the people—in the islands, and in some of the southern counties, diminished. The next table affords a comparison of the numbers of the population as grouped in towns, villages and rural districts, and in the mainland and islands.

Table II.Population in Towns, Villages and Rural Districts, Mainland and Islands, 1891 and 1901.
Groups.Population. Percentage of Pop.& in 
each to total Pop.
1891.1901.1891.1901.
Towns*2,631,2983,120,24165·37 69·77 
Villages*465,836466,05311·57 10·42 
Ruraldistricts 928,513885,80923·06 19·81 
Total4,025,6474,472,103100·00 100·00 
Mainland3,865,7484,316,55196·03 96·52 
Islands159,899155,5523·97 3·48 
Total4,025,6474,472,103100·00 100·00 

*Villages have populations of from 300 to 2000; towns from 2000 upwards.

Table III. gives the population of towns with more than 30,000 inhabitants.

Table III.Population in chief Towns in 1881, 1891 and 1901.
Town.1881.1891.1901.
Glasgow551,415565,839(ofenlargedarea,658,198)760,468
Edinburgh228,357261,225 (of enlarged area)316,523
Dundee140,239153,330160,878
Aberdeen105,189121,623153,503
Paisley55,638166,42579,354
Leith59,48567,70076,668
Govan50,49263,62576,350
Greenock66,70463,42367,672
Partick27,41036,53854,281
Coatbridge24,81230,03436,991
Kilmarnock23,90128,44734,165
Kirkcaldy23,63227,15134,063
Perth28,98029,89932,886
Hamilton18,51724,85932,775
Motherwell12,90418,72630,418

The burghs in which the largest proportion of Scottish-born persons lived in 1901 were Kirkcaldy (with 95·997 in every 100 of its inhabitants), Aberdeen (with 94·997), Perth (with 94·442) and Kilmarnock (with 94·046) The largest proportion of English-born were found in Edinburgh (with 5·438%) and Leith (with 4·481). Irish-born were most in evidence in Coatbridge (with 15·158 in every 100), Partick (with 12·05) and Govan (with 11·51). Welsh nationality was most marked in Motherwell (with 0·250%) Those of British-Colonial birth were most numerous in Edinburgh (with 0·933%), and foreigners in Glasgow (with 0·890), Leith (with 0·741) and Hamilton (with 0·720). In addition to the 17,654 resident foreigners there were 4973 foreigners casually in Scotland at the taking of the census in 1901 (1839 men and women on board foreign and British vessels), raising the total of foreigners actually enumerated to 22,627 (males 14,448), of whom 10,373 were of Russian nationality, 4051 of Italian, and 3232 of German.

Table IV. shows the nationalities of the people in 1891 and 1901.

Table IV.—Illustrating Nationalities in 1891 and 1901.

Where Born.Scotland, 1891.Scotland, 1901.
Number.Percentage
of Pop.
Number.Percentage
of Pop.
Scotland3,698,70091.634,085,75591.361
Ireland184,8074.84205,0644.585
England108,7362.70131,3502.937
Wales2,3090.062,6730.060
Isle of Man and the Channel Islands9270.021,0580.024
British Colonies13,6070.3915,9070.355
British born abroad[1]8,0510.2012,6420.283
Foreigners8,5100.2117,6540.395
Total4,025,647100.004,472,103100.000

Table V. gives the number of persons, exclusive of children under three years of age, who spoke Gaelic only, and Gaelic and English, with their percentages to the population in 1901. The counties in which the highest percentages obtained of persons speaking Gaelic only were Ross and Cromarty with 15.92% (12,171 persons) and Inverness with 13.01% (11,722 persons). But in no fewer than eighteen counties the proportion of Gaelic-speaking persons was under 1%.

Table V.-Showing Number of Persons aged three years and upwards speaking Gaelic only and Gaelic and English in 1901.

Area.Population.Gaeliconly.Percentage.Gaelicand
English
Percentage.
Scotland4,472,10328,1060.63202,7004.53
Northern portion1,753,47027,8541.59160,9159.18
Southern portion2,718,6332520.0141,7851.54
Northern division112,1754890.4317,08415.23 
North-western division166,55423,89314.34 82,57349.58 
North-eastern division460,941200.015,1251.11
East-midland division665,215950.0113,8182.06
West-midland division348,5853,3570.9642,31512.14 
South-western division1,862,7751620.0134,2891.84
South-eastern division662,415890.017,0021.06
Southern division193,44310.004940.26

Vital Statistics.—In Table VI. is shown the number of births, deaths, marriages and illegitimate births for the decades ending 1870, 1880, 1890 and 1900.

Table VI.—Births, Deaths, Marriages and Illegitimate Births, 1861-1900.

1861-1870
(inclusive).
1871-1880
(inclusive).
1881-1890
(inclusive).
1891-1900
(inclusive).
Births1,120,7911,232,3111,251,9301,280,044
Deaths706,195763,948743,582781,860
Marriages224,222253,550259,388298,664
Illegitimate births110,061108,260102,12890,981

Table VII. gives the percentages to the population of the births, deaths and marriages in the four decades specified, along with the ratio of illegitimacy to the total number of births in the same periods. The counties in which the highest percentages of illegitimate births were found were Wigtown, Dumfries, Kirkcudbright and Peebles in the south; Elgin, Banff and Aberdeen in the north-east, and Caithness in the north; the shires showing the lowest percentages were Clackmannan, Dumbarton and Shetland.

Table VII.—Birth, Death and Marriage Ratio, 1861-1900, and Percentages of Illegitimacy to total Births.

Rate.1861-1870
(inclusive).
1871-1880
(inclusive).
1881-1890
(inclusive).
1891-1900
(inclusive).
Birth3.483.473.223.01
Death0.192.151.911.84
Marriage0.690.710.660.70
Percentagesofillegitimate
birthstototalbirths
9.818.798.157.11

Occupations of the People.—Table VIII. divides the people according to occupations. The most noteworthy feature in this connexion is the great diminution that took place within the intercensal period (1891-1901) in the unproductive class, which to some extent accounts for the increase in the number of the industrial and commercial classes.

Table VIII.—Occupation of the People in 1891 and 1901.

Occupations.Number engaged in each Class of Occupation.Percentage engaged in each Class
of Occupation.
1891.1901.1891.1901.
Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Total.Males.Females.Males.Females.
Total occupied and unoccupied[2]1,446,2091,599,4533,045,6621,656,0811,790,2423,446,323100.00100.00100.00100.00
Engaged in occupations1,203,909543,8281,747,7371,391,188591,6241,982,81283.2534.0084.0033.05
Retired or unoccupied242,3001,055,6251,297,925264,8931,198,6181,463,51116.7566.0016.0066.95
Classes.
1. Professional59,05323,05182,10467,82733,234101,0614.081.444.101.86
2. Domestic29,163190,057219,22026,755174,475201,2302.0211.881.619.75
3. Commercial174,55810,276184,834221,57924,136245,71512.070.6413.381.35
4. Agriculture and Fishing205,82730,018235,845196,58140,730237,31114.231.8811.872.27
5. Industrial735,308290,4261,025,734878,446319,0491,197,49550.8518.1653.0417.82
6. Unoccupied and non-productive242,3001,055,6251,297,925264,8931,198,6181,463,51116.7566.0016.0066.95

Poor Relief.—Before the Reformation, relief of the poor had been the duty of the Church, for early legislation aimed at suppressing rather than aiding poverty. Those, indeed, who were absolutely dependent on alms might receive a licence to beg within the bounds of their own parish, but the able-bodied poor were severely dealt with. The act of 1579 directed the magistrates in towns and the justices in rural parishes to propose a register of the aged and impotent poor and to levy a tax on the inhabitants of every parish for their support. One consequence of the denial of relief to the able-bodied was that the workhouse, so familiar in the English poor-law system, was not established in Scotland, though almshouses are found in many towns, and poorhouses, where those indigent who are alone inthe world without any one to care for them ind food and shelter,began to be general in the 19th century. Hence arises theprevalence of out-relief, one of the distinctive features of theScottish poor law. The act of 1579, however, proved largelyinoperative. The provision of relief passed from the justicesto the ministers and kirk-sessions, who by an edict of the PrivyCouncil, in 1692, were required to draw up a list of the poortwice a year, and rates were levied only when collections in thechurch “plates” were insufficient. For 150 years nothing wasdone to systematize poor relief, and even in 1842 about half ofthe parishes were yet unassessed to the poor. The total inadequacyof the voluntary system to cope with genuine distress,in respect both of contributions and the dispensing of alms,led in 1845 to the passing of an act which made the parish thepoor-relief area, substituted the parochial board for the kirk sessionwhere recourse was had to a rate, made the appointmentof inspectors of the poor and medical officers compulsory, andset up a system of central administrative control known as theBoard of Supervision for the Relief of the Poor, with headquartersin Edinburgh. The act did not provide for compulsory assessment,but this was virtually accomplished by the vigilance ofthe Board, which demanded of local authorities increased careand more liberal relief, with the result that in 1894 only 46 outof 848 parishes remained unassessed. In this year a change inthe governing body was affected, the Local Government Boardfor Scotland being constituted and replacing the Board of Supervision,while the parochial boards made way for parish councils.As the authorities cannot give relief to those able to work, thereare no casual wards in Scotland, vagrants having to pay for theirnight's lodging, or find it in the police station or elsewhere.Every parish has to support its own poor, that is, natives orthose who have acquired a settlement by living in it for five years,but relief is given in the parish in which it is applied for, thecost being recovered from the parish of birth or settlementafterwards. For the sick poor the larger towns provide hospitalsand dispensaries, besides medical attendance at the homes ofthe poor, while in rural districts there are cottage hospitals,village sick-rooms, and sick wards in the poorhouses. Thementally afflicted are sent to the asylum if they are dangerous,or kept in the licensed wards of poorhouses, or, if they are harmlessor imbecile, boarded out. The expense of pauper lunacyis only partially borne by the parish. The district lunacyboard (practically a joint-committee of the county and burghcouncils), aided by a parliamentary grant, is charged with theprovision and upkeep of the asylums, the poor-law authoritiesonly defraying the maintenance of their own patients. Orphanor deserted children, or the children of paupers, are boarded outand reared like ordinary children, attending the public schoolsand growing up without the “pauper taint.”

Police.—It was not till the middle of the 19th century that aregular police force was established in Scotland. Till thendwellers in rural districts had practically to provide for theirown safety as best they could, while some towns maintaineda paid watch and others enrolled volunteer constables, everycitizen being expected to take his turn in patrolling the streetsto protect person and property. At first an adoptive act wasintroduced, under which the Commissioners of Supply, who thenmanaged county business—resident landowners in possessionof landed estate to the annual value of £100—were empowered toraise a police force in the counties; but the want of common policyand initiative led in 1857 to the compulsory institution of apolice force throughout the country. Burghs having a populationof more than 7000 might furnish their own police, andsmaller burghs were policed as part of the county to which theybelonged by the standing joint-committee (composed equallyof Commissioners of Supply and members of the county council),but no new police burgh the population of which was under20,000 was to be free to police itself. All the constabularyforces, excepting the Orkney and Shetland police, are annuallyinspected as to efficiency and reported on to the Secretary ofState for Scotland.

Education. (a) Elementary Schools.—The system of schoolswhich prevailed till the Education Act of 1872 dated from 1696,when the Act for Settling of Schools was passed—one of thelast but not the least of the achievements of the Scots Parliament—providingfor the maintenance of a school in every parishby the kirk-session and heritors, with power to the Commissionersof Supply to appoint a schoolmaster in case the primaryauthorities made default. The schoolmaster held his office forlife, co-education was the rule from the first, and the school wasundenominational. The various religious secessions in Scotlandled to the founding of a large number of sectarian and subscriptionschools, and at the Disruption in 1843 the Free Churchmade provision for the secular as well as the religious instructionof the children of its members. The Education Act of 1872abolished the old management of the parish schools and providedfor the creation of districts (burgh, parish or group of parishes)under the control of school boards, of which there are 972 inScotland, elected every three years by the ratepayers, male andfemale. Since that date the most important changes effectedin the elementary education system were the abolition, in 1886,of individual inspection of the lower standards—afterwardsextended to the whole of the standards, the inspectors applyinga collective test, the “block-grant” system, to the efficiencyof a school—and the abolition of school fees (1889) for the compulsorystandards, the loss being made up principally by aparliamentary grant, and partly by a proportion, earmarkedfor the purpose, of the proceeds of the Local Taxation (Customsand Excise) Act 1890, and the Education and Local TaxationAccount (Scotland) Act 1892. The capitation grant in relief offees is at the rate of 12s., of which 10s. is furnished by theparliamentary grant and 2s. by the other sources. King'sScholars, trained at one of the training colleges, and King'sStudents who attend one of the universities, form the chief sourceof supply of certificated teachers.

(b) Secondary Schools.—Records of the existence of schoolsin the chief towns occur as early as the 13th century. Theywere under the supervision of the chancellor of each diocese,and were mainly devoted to studies preparatory for the Church.Before the Reformation schools for general education wereattached to many religious houses, and in 1496 the first Scottishact was passed requiring substantial householders to send theireldest sons to school from the time they were eight or nine yearsold until they were “competentlie founded and have perfiteLatin.” In 1560 John Knox propounded in his First Book ofDiscipline a comprehensive scheme of education from elementaryto university, but neither this proposal nor an act passed by theprivy council in 1616 for the establishment of a school in everyparish was carried into effect. In several burghs grammarschools have existed from a very early date, and some of them,such as the Royal High School of Edinburgh and the High Schoolof Glasgow, reached a high standard of proficiency. They werelargely supported by the town councils, who erected the buildings,kept them in repair, and usually paid the rector's salary. By theact of 1872 their management was transferred to the schoolboards, and they may be conveniently classified into higher-classpublic schools, such as the old grammar schools and the liberallyendowed schools of the Merchant Company in Edinburgh, andhigher grade schools, with a few years' preparatory course forthe universities, while some of the ordinary schools have earnedthe grant for higher education. In 1885 the Scottish EducationDepartment, of which the secretary for Scotland is the virtualhead, was reorganized. It was separated from the EnglishDepartment, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools(public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituteda leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is acceptedfor most of the university and professional authorities in lieu oftheir preliminary examinations. In 1898 the functions of theScience and Art Department, as far as Scotland is concerned,were transferred to the Department, which makes substantialgrants for instruction in those subjects for which science and artgrants were formerly paid. A Technical Schools Act, passed in1887, was applied by a few local authorities; but in 1890 funds were by chance made available from an unexpected source, anddevoted to the purposes of technical and secondary education.Parliament had introduced a measure of public-house reformalong with a scheme for compensating such houses as lost theirlicence. This feature was so stoutly opposed that the bill didnot pass, although the chancellor of the exchequer had providedthe necessary funds. Government proposed to distribute thismoney among local authorities and expend the balance in reliefrates, but a clause was inserted in this bill giving burgh andcounty councils the option of spending the balance on technicaleducation as well as in relief of rates. Advantage was largelytaken of this power, and the grant came to be succinctly describedas the “Residue” grant (£97,000 a year). The Departmentestablished in each county a body known as the secondary educationcommittee, chosen by the county council and the chairmenof the school boards, which is charged with the expenditureof its share of the grant. The committee exists also in a few ofthe largest burghs, the members being in this case appointed bythe town council, school board, and sometimes the trustees ofeducational endowments. In virtue of a Continuation Class code,technical and specialized education is given in day and, chiefly,evening classes in various centres, the principal being theHeriot-Watt College, Edinburgh; the Edinburgh and East ofScotland College of Agriculture; the Glasgow and West of ScotlandTechnical College; the Glasgow School of Art; the GlasgowAthenaeum Commercial College; the West of Scotland AgriculturalCollege; the Dundee Technical Institute; Gray's Schoolof Art, Aberdeen; the Edinburgh Royal Institution School ofArt, and the Edinburgh School of Applied Art; but well-equippedclasses are held in most of the large towns, and severalcounty councils maintain organizers of technical instruction.As regards agricultural education, the county is found to be inmost cases too small an area for efficient organization, andconsequently several counties combine to support, for instance,the East of Scotland Agricultural College—a corporation consistingof the agricultural department in the University, theHeriot-Watt College and the Veterinary College in Edinburgh,—theWest of Scotland Agricultural College, Glasgow, andthe agricultural department in Aberdeen University. Theleading public schools on the English model are Trinity College,Glenalmond, Perthshire; Loretto School, Musselburgh, andFettes College, Merchiston Castle and the Academy in Edinburgh.(c) Universities and Colleges.—There are four universities inScotland, namely (in the order of foundation), St Andrews (1411),Glasgow (1450), Aberdeen (1494) and Edinburgh (1582), inwhich are the customary faculties of arts, divinity, law, medicineand science. In 1901 Mr Andrew Carnegie gave £2,000,000 tothe universities. The administration of the fund was handedover to a body of trustees, who devote the annual income(£100,000) partly to the payment of students' fees and partly tobuildings, apparatus, professorships and research. The courtof each university is the supreme authority in regard to finance,discipline, and the regulation of the duties of professors andlecturers. The universities are empowered to affiliate otheracademical institutions, and women students are admitted on anequal footing with men. Under the act of 1899 the UniversityCollege of Dundee was incorporated with St Andrews University,and Queen Margaret College became a part of the university ofGlasgow, the buildings and endowments, used for womenstudents exclusively, being handed over to the University Court.St Mungo's College, Glasgow, incorporated in 1889 under aBoard of Trade licence, has medicinal and law faculties, andAnderson's College Medical School, Glasgow, was instituted in1887. These are on the same basis as the extra-mural medicalschools in Edinburgh, their medical curricula qualifying forlicence only and not for Scottish university degrees. The UnitedFree Church maintains colleges at Aberdeen, Edinburgh andGlasgow, and there is a Roman Catholic college at Blairs nearAberdeen, besides a monastery and college at Fort Augustus.The Church of Scotland and the United Free Church each possesstheir training colleges for teachers, the Episcopal Church supportsone and the Roman Catholic Church one. The Edinburgh Museumof Science and Art has been transferred to the Scottish EducationDepartment.

Agriculture.—Though Scotland is a country of great estates,this circ*mstance possesses less significance from the agriculturalthan from the historical standpoint. The excessive size of theproperties may to some extent be accounted for by the factthat most of the surface is so mountainous and unproductiveas to be unsuitable for division into smaller estates, but twoother causes have also co-operated, namely, first, the wideterritorial authority of such Lowland families as the Scotts andDouglases, and such Highland clans as the Campbells of Argylland Breadalbane, and the Murrays of Athol and the duke ofSutherland; and secondly, the stricter law of entail introducedin 1685. Thus the largest estates remain in the hands of the oldhereditary families. The almost absolute power formerly wieldedby the landlords, who within their own territories were lords ofregality, hindered independent agricultural enterprise, and itwas not till after the abolition of hereditable jurisdictions in1748 that agriculture made real progress. The Society ofImprovers in the Knowledge of Agriculture, founded in 1723,ceased to exist after the rebellion of 1745, and the introductionof new and improved methods, where not the result of privateenergy and sagacity, was chiefly due to the Highland andAgricultural Society, established in 1784. Further stimulus wasalso supplied by the high prices that obtained during the Napoleonicwars, and, in spite of periods of severe depression sincethen, the science of agriculture has continued to advance. Thesystem of nineteen years' leases had proved distinctly superiorto the system of yearly tenancy so general in England, althoughprejudicially affected by customs and conditions which, for aconsiderable time, seriously strained the relations between landlordand tenant. But the abolition of the law of hypothec in 1879—underwhich the landlord had a lien for rent upon the produceof the land, the cattle and sheep fed on it, and the live stock andimplements used in husbandry—the Ground Game Act of 1880,the several Agricultural Holdings Acts, and the construction oflight railways improved matters and established a better understanding.The period of general depression which set in before1885 was surmounted in Scotland with comparatively littletrouble. A large amount of capital was lost by tenants, and afew farms were thrown here and there upon the landlordshands, but in no district was rent extinguished or were holdingsabandoned. The sub-commissioners who reported to the RoyalCommission on Agriculture in 1895 found nearly everywhere ademand, sometimes competition for farms, persisting throughoutthe crisis. In Banff, Nairn, Elgin and several southern countiesrent reductions varied from 25 to 30%. In Perth, Fife, Forfarand Aberdeen the average was 30%; but in nearly all thecounties, towards the end at least of the period of depression,the coexistent demand and competition for farms were observable.In some districts in the west rents fell very little; inothers, especially sheep-farming districts, the fall was verysevere. In Ayrshire the figure varied from 5 to 20%; forDumfriesshire 16% was given as a fair average, but here too thedistressed farmer was compelled to admit that if he gave up hisholding there were others ready to take it. Afterwards, owingto the increased attention given to stock-fattening and dairying,and to a rise in prices, farming reached a condition of equilibrium,and the most noticeable residuum of the period of depressionwas the large intrusion of the butcher and grazier class into thefarmer class proper. Caithness-shire was declared to be thegreatest sufferer by the period of depression; rents fell in thatcounty by 30 to 50% on large farms, 20 to 30% on medium,and 10 to 60% on small farms. Nevertheless, the decline in thevalue of land was serious. According to the reports of the InlandRevenue Commissioners, the gross income derived from theownership of lands in Scotland was returned in 1879-1880 at£7,769,303. After that year a continuous fall set in, and in1901-1902 the amount returned was only £5,911,836, a drop intwenty-five years of £1,857,467. These figures refer to land,whether cultivated or not, including ornamental grounds,gardens attached to houses when exceeding one acre in extent, teinds or tithe-rent charge commuted under the LandsCommutation Acts, farm-houses and farm-buildings.

The crofters of the Highlands and islands had their grievancesalso. During the first half of the 19th century wholesale clearanceshad been effected in many districts, and the crofters werecompelled either to emigrate or to crowd into areas alreadycongested, where, eking out a precarious living by following thefisheries, they led a hard and miserable existence. At last afteragitation and discontent had become rife, government appointeda royal commission to inquire into the whole question in 1883.It reported next year, and in 1886 the Crofters' Holdings Actwas passed. Amending statutes of succeeding years added tothe commissioners' powers of fixing fair rents and cancellingarrears, the power of enlarging crofts and common grazings.Since then political agitation has practically died out, though thematerial condition of the class has not markedly improved,except where, with government aid, crofter fishermen have beenenabled to buy better boats; but in some districts, even in theisland of Lewis, substantial houses have been built. After thepassing of the act (1886) the Crofters' Commission in 15 yearsconsidered applications for rent and revaluation of holdingswhich amounted to £82,790, and fixed the fair rent at £61,233,or an annual reduction of £21,557; of arrears of rent amountingto £184,962 they cancelled £124,180, and also assigned48,949 acres in enlargement of holdings. Under the CongestedDistricts (Scotland) Act of 1897, £35,000 a year was devotedwithin certain districts of Argyll, Inverness, Ross and Cromarty,Sutherland, Caithness, Orkney and Shetland, to assisting migration,improving the breeds of live stock, building piers and boatslips,making roads and bridges, developing home industries, &c.

Table IX.—Classification of Holdings above 1 Acre

Years.1 to 5 Acres.5 to 50 Acres.50 to 300 Acres.Above300Acres.
No.Acres.No.Acres.No.Acres.No.Acres.
189520,15065,89133,921608,39022,8022,935,18427661,284,461
190319,56063,96134,018610,66923,0752,970,32527301,268,843
190518,685...34,673...23,055...2718...

In Table IX. will be found a classification of the holdings in 1895, 1903 and 1905. The figures show that the holdings under 50 acres constituted fully two-thirds of the total holdings and that, though no very decided alteration in the size of farms was in progress, the larger portion of the cultivated land was held in farms of between 50 and 300 acres. The average holding in 1905 was 61.7 acres.

Table X.—Acreage under Cultivation.

Total Area, including Inland Water, but excluding Foreshore
and Tidal Water, 19,458,728 Acres.
Crops.Average
1871-1875.
1905.
Acres.Acres.
Total area under Crops and Grasses.[3]4,560,8254,880,985
 Permanent Pasture—
 For Hay. .148,342
 Not for Hay. .1,302,384
Total1,084,9831,450,726
 Arable Land3,475,8423,430,259
 Grain Crops—
 Wheat122,51348,641
 Barley or Bere252,105212,134
 Oats1,007,339962,972
 Rye10,4805,598
 Beans26,74610,346
 Peas2,332910
Total1,421,5151,240,601
 Potatoes167,880144,265
 Turnips and Swedes503,709445,306
 Mangold1,7482,389
 Cabbage, Kohl-Rabi and Rape4,65614,725
 Vetches or Tares1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Scotland - Wikisource, the free online library (4)
 Other Crops
15,828
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Scotland - Wikisource, the free online library (5)8,557
2,699
Total693,821617,941
Clover, Sainfoin and Grasses under Rotation—
 For Hay. .427,686
 Not for Hay. .1,130,591
Total1,338,1061,558,277
 Flax7314
 Small Fruit[4]6,493
 Bare Fallow21,6696,943

Table X. shows the total area, the cultivated area and the area under grain crops, green crops, grasses and miscellaneous crops. Comparison between 1905 and the average for 1871-1875 clearly demonstrates the change which Scottish agriculture had undergone. Though practically the same amount of land was brought under the plough, there was a considerable fall in the acreage under grain andgreen crops, but this was rather more than balanced by the increasedarea under grass, showing that the tendency towards the raisingof live stock has become more widespread and more pronounced.Only a little more than one-fourth of the area of Scotland is cultivated,while in England only one-fourth is leftuncultivated, but it should be borne in mindthat “permanent pasture” does not includethe mountainous districts, which not only form so large a proportion of the surface but also, in their heaths and natural grasses, supply a scanty herbage for sheep and cattle, 9,104,388 acres being used for grazing in 1905. Oats remain the staple grain crop, and barley, though fluctuating from year to year, is steadied by the demands of the distillers. Wheat showed a marked decline in most years from 1893 to 1904. Table XI.,however, shows that in most cases, even when the acreage occupied by crops is smaller, the estimated yield to the acre shows a distinct improvement, the result of enhanced skill and industry, and the adoption of more scientific methods. In 1905 the yield of hay from clover, sainfoin and rotation grasses amounted to 666,985 tons, or 31.19 cwts. to the acre, and from permanent pasture 209,908 tons, or 28.46 cwts. to the acre, or 876,893 tons of all kinds of hay from 575,220 acres.

Table XI.—Showing Yield of Chief Crops to the Acre.

Crops.EstimateTotalProduce.Average
Yield to
theAcre.
Average
Yield to
theAcre.
1885.1905.1885.1905.
Wheat—Bushels1,893,5012,065,38134.3342.46
Barley—Bushels8,245,8208,004,44634.7237.73
Oats—Bushels33,407,12735,277,80731.9336.63
Beans—Bushels709,577364,81830.6736.76
Peas—Bushels37,46417,10821.4127.16
Potatoes—Tons803,523979,541 5.39 6.97
Turnips and Swedes—Tons6,496,1897,162,79415.3916.08

Table XII. shows the number of live stock in 1905, with the average for the period 1871-1875, and illustrates the extent to which farmers have turned their attention to stock in preference to crops. The cattle stock has risen steadily, and a regular increase in the number under 2 years points to the healthy state of the breeding industry. The breeds include the Ayrshire, noted milkers and specially adapted for dairy farms (which prevail in the south-west), which in this respect have largely supplanted the Galloway in their native district; the polled Angus or Aberdeen, fair milkers, but valuable for their beef-making qualities, and on this account, as well as their hardihood, in great favour in the north-east, wherecattle-feeding has been carried to perfection; and the West Highland or Kyloe breed, a picturesque breed with long horns, shaggy coats and decided colours—black, red, dun, cream and brindle—that thrives well on wild and healthy pasture. The special breeds of sheep are

the fine-woolled of Shetland, the black faced of the Highlands, theCheviots, natives of the hills from which they are named, a favouritebreed in the south, though Border Leicesters and other Englishbreeds, as well as a variety of crosses, are kept for winter feeding onlowland farms. The principal breeds of horses are the Shetland andHighland ponies, and the Clydesdale draught.

Table XII.—Illustrating Increase of Live Stock.

Stock.Average
1871-1875
1905.
Horses—
 Used for agricultural purposes[5]. .156,520
 Unbroken. .49,668
Total178,652206,188
Cattle—
 Cows and heifers in milk or in calf392,252437,138
 Other cattle, 2 years and above267,920276,330
 Other cattle, under 2 years467,165513,827
Total1,127,3371,227,295
Sheep—
 Ewes kept for breeding. .2,918,544
 Other sheep, 1 year and above4,735,0081,383,200
 Other sheep, under 1 year2,426,1142,722,467
Total7,161,1227,024,211
Pigs166,148130,214

Orchards and Forests.—The acreage devoted to orchards rose from1562 in 1880 to 2482 in 1905. The chief areas for tree and small fruitare Clydesdale and the Carse of Gowrie, but there are also productiveorchards in the shires of Haddington, Stirling, Ayr and Roxburgh,while market-gardening has developed in the neighbourhood of thelarger towns. In 1812 woods and plantations occupied 907,695acres, of which 501,469 acres were natural woods and 406,226 planted.Within sixty years this area had declined to 734,490 acres, but withrenewed attention to forestry and encouragement of planting thearea had grown in 1895 to 878,675 acres; by 1905, however, theacreage was practically unchanged. Inverness, Aberdeen and Perthare naturally the best wooded shires. The modern plantations consistmostly of Scots fir with a sprinkling of larch.

Deer Forests and Game, &c..—Deer forests in 1900 covered 2,287,297acres, an increase of 575,405 acres since 1883. The red deer is peculiarto the Highlands, but the fallow deer is not uncommon in the hillcountry of the south-western Lowlands. The grouse moors occupyan extensive area and are widely distributed. Ptarmigan and black-co*ckare found in many districts, partridges and pheasants are carefullypreserved, and the capercailzie, once extirpated, has beenrestored to some of the Highland forests. Hares and rabbits, thelatter especially, are abundant. Fox-hunting is fashionable in mostof the southern shires, but otter-hunting is practically extinct.The bear, wolf and beaver, once common, have long ceased to be, thelast wolf having been killed, it is said, in 1680 by Sir Ewen Cameronof Lochlel. The wild cat may yet be found in the Highlands, and thepolecat, ermine and pine marten still exist, the golden eagle and thewhite-tailed eagle haunt the wilder and more remote mountainousdistricts, while the other large birds of prey, like the osprey and kite,are becoming scarce. The islands, rocks and cliffs and some inlandlochs are frequented in multitudes by a great variety of water-fowl.

Fisheries..—The Scottish seaboard is divided for administrativepurposes into twenty-seven fishery districts, namely, on the eastcoast, Eyemouth, Leith, Anstruther, Montrose, Stonehaven, Aberdeen,Peterhead, Fraserburgh, Banff, Buckie, Findhorn, Cromarty,Helmsdale, Lybster, Wick (15); on the north, Orkney, Shetland(2); on the west, Stornoway, Barra, Loch Broom, Loch Carton andSkye, Fort William, Campbeltown, Inverary, Rothesay, Greenock,Ballantrae (10). The whole of the fisheries are controlled by theFishery Board for Scotland, which was established in 1882 in successionto the former Board of White Herring Fishery. In 1903 thenumber of fishermen directly employed in fishing was 36,162, therewere 17,496 engaged in curing and preserving the fish landed, while32,201 were employed in subsidiary industries on shore, making atotal of 85,859 persons engaged in the fisheries and dependentindustries. In 1905 the herring fishery yielded 5,342,777 cwts.(£1,343,080); in 1909, 4,541,297 cwts. The most prolific districtsare Shetland in the north, Fraserburgh, Peterhead, Wick, Aberdeenand Anstruther in the east, and Stornoway in the west. The principalherring market is continental Europe, Germany and Russia beingthe largest consumers, and there has been a growing exportation tothe United States. In 1905 the total catch of fish of all kinds(excepting shell-fish) amounted to 7,856,310 cwts., and in 1907 (thehighest recorded to 1910), 9,018,154 cwts. (£3,149,127). The annualvalue of the shell-fish (lobsters, crabs, oysters, mussels, clams,periwinkles, co*ckles, shrimps) is about £73,000. The weight of salmoncarried by Scottish railways and steamers in 1894 was 2437 tons, andin 1903 it was 2047 tons. In 1894 the number of boxes of Scottishsalmon delivered at Billingsgate market in London was 15,489, andin 1903 it was 15,103, being more than half of the salmon receivedthen from all parts of Europe, including Irish and English consignments.In 1903 the Tay rentals came to £22,902, the highest thenrecorded. The other considerable rentals were the Dee £18,392,Tweed £15,389 and Spey £8146.

Roads.—In the 12th century an act was passed providingthat the highways between market-towns should be at least20 ft. broad. Over the principal rivers at this early period therewere bridges near the most populous places, as over the Dee nearAberdeen, the Esk at Brechin, the Tay at Perth and the Forthnear Stirling. Until the 16th century, however, traffic betweendistant places was carried on chiefly by pack-horses. The firststage-coach in Scotland was that which ran between Edinburghand Leith in 1610. In 1658 there was a fortnightly stage-coachbetween Edinburgh and London, but afterwards it would appearto have been discontinued for many years. Separate acts enjoiningthe justices of the peace, and afterwards along withthem the commissioners of supply, to take measures for themaintenance of roads were passed in 1617, 1669, 1676 and1686. These provisions had reference chiefly to what afterwardscame to be known as “statute labour roads,” intended primarilyto supply a means of communication within the several parishes.They were kept in repair by the tenants and cotters, and, whentheir labour was not sufficient, by the landlords, who were requiredto “stent” (assess) themselves, customs also beingsometimes levied at bridges, ferries and causeways. By separatelocal acts the “statute labour” was in many cases replaced bya payment called “conversion money,” and the General RoadsAct of 1845 made the alteration universal. The Roads andBridges (Scotland) Act of 1878 entrusted the control of the roadsto royal and police burghs and in the counties to road trustees,from whom it was transferred by the Local Government Act of1889 to county councils, the management, however, being in thehands of district committees. The Highlands had good militaryroads earlier than the rest of the country. The project, begun in1725 under the direction of General George Wade, took ten yearsto complete, and the roads were afterwards kept in repair by anannual parliamentary grant. In the Lowlands the main roadswere constructed under the Turnpike Acts, the earliest of whichwas obtained in 1750. Originally they were maintained bytolls, but this method, after several counties had obtainedseparate acts for its abolition, was superseded in 1883 by the actof 1878.

Canals.—There are four canals in Scotland, the Caledonian,the Crinan, the Forth and Clyde and the Union, of which theCaledonian and Crinan are national property (seeCaledonian Canal). The Forth and Clyde Navigation runs from Bowlingon the Clyde, through the north-western part of Glasgow andthrough Kirkintilloch and Falkirk to Grangemouth on the Forth,a distance of 35 m. There is also a branch, 2¾ m. long, fromStockingfield to Port Dundas in the city of Glasgow, which iscontinued for the distance of 1 m. to form a junction with theMonkland canal. This last has a length of 12¼ m., and runs fromthe north-east of Glasgow through Coatbridge to Woodhallin the parish of Old Monkland. It was begun in 1761 and openedfor traffic in 1792. The Forth and Clyde canal was authorizedin 1767 and opened from sea to sea in 1790. In 1846 its proprietorsbought the Monkland canal, and in 1867 the combinedundertaking passed into the hands of the Caledonian RailwayCompany. The Union canal, 31½ m. long, starts from PortDownie, on the Forth and Clyde canal near Falkirk, and runsto Port Hopetoun in Edinburgh. Begun in 1818 it was completedin 1822, and in 1849 was vested in the Edinburgh andGlasgow Railway Company, which in turn was absorbed by theNorth British Railway Company in 1865. The Forth and Clydecanal has a revenue of about £120,000 a year, including receiptsfrom the docks at Grangemouth, and the expenditure on managementand maintenance is about £40,000. The Union canalearns between £2000 and £3000, and its expenditure is but little less than its revenue. Three other canals formerly existed inScotland. The Aberdeen canal, 1814 m. long, running up theDon valley from Aberdeen to Inverurie was opened in 1807,but did not prove profitable and was ultimately sold to the GreatNorth of Scotland Railway Company, by which it was abandoned.The Glasgow, Paisley and Johnstone canal, 11 m. long, wasopened in 1811 and was bought in 1869 by the Glasgow andSouth-Western railway, which in 1881 obtained statutory powersto abandon it as a canal and use its site, so far as necessary,for a railway line. The Forth and Cart Junction canal was onlyhalf a mile long. It ran from the Forth and Clyde canal tothe Clyde, opposite the river Cart, and was intended to allowvessels to pass direct from the east coast up that river to Paisley.The Caledonian railway, which acquired it together with theForth and Clyde canal in 1867, obtained powers to abandonit in 1893.

Railways.—The first railway in Scotland for which an act ofparliament was obtained was that between Kilmarnock andTroon (934 m.), opened in 1812, and worked by horses. Asimilar railway, of which the chief source of profit was thepassenger traffic, was opened between Edinburgh and Dalkeithin 1831, branches being afterwards extended to Leith and Musselburgh.By 1840 the length of the railway lines for which billswere passed was 19114 m., the capital being £3,122,133. Thechief companies are the Caledonian, formed in 1845; the NorthBritish, of the same date; the Glasgow and South-Western,formed by amalgamation in 1850; the Highland, formed byamalgamation in 1865; and the Great North of Scotland,1846.

Table XIII. shows the advance in mileage, goods and passengertraffic and receipts, from both sources, since 1857.

Table XIII.—Illustrating Growth of Railway Business.
Year.Mileage.Passengers.Passenger
Traffic
Receipts.
Goods
Traffic
Receipts.
Total.
18571243 14,733,503 £916,697£1,584,781£2,501,478
18742700 38,220,8922,350,593 3,884,424 6,235,017
18842999 54,305,0742,931,737 4,426,023 7,357,760
18883097 68,413,3493,163,195 4,564,627 7,727,822
19003485122,201,1024,715,592 6,431,69311,147,285
19053804115,580,0005,014,452 6,803,28611,817,738

The total capital of all the Scots companies in 1888 was £114,120,119;by 1910 it exceeded £185,000,000. Since the passing of the LightRailways Act 1896, the Board of Trade has sanctioned several lightrailways. By 1910 the total railway mileage was 3844.

Mining Industry.—Coal and iron, generally found in convenientproximity to each other, are the chief sources of themineral wealth of Scotland. The principal coalfields are Lanarkshire,which yields nearly half of the total output, Fifeshire,Ayrshire, Stirlingshire and Midlothian, but coal is also minedin the counties (usually reckoned as forming part of one or otherof the main fields) of Linlithgow, Haddington, Dumbarton,Clackmannan, Kinross, Dumfries, Renfrew, Argyll and Peebles,while a small quantity is obtained from the Oolite at Brorain Sutherlandshire. The earliest records concerning coalpitsappear to be the charters granted, towards the end of the 12thcentury, to William Oldbridge of Carriden in Linlithgowshire,and in 1291 to the abbot and convent of Dunfermline conferringthe privilege of digging coal in the lands of Pittencrieff. Themonks of Newbattle Abbey also dug coal at an early date fromsurface pits on the banks of the Esk. Aeneas Sylvius (PopePius II.), who visited Scotland in the 15th century, refers tothe fact that the poor received at church doors a species of stonewhich they burned instead of wood; and although the value ofcoal for smith's and artificer's work was early recognized it wasnot used for domestic purposes till about the close of the 16thcentury. In 1606 an act was passed binding colliers to perpetualservice at the works where they were employed, and they were notfully emancipated till 1799. An act was passed in 1843 forbiddingthe employment of children of tender years and women in undergroundmines. In 1905 there were 492 coal and iron mines inoperation, employing 109,939 hands (89,516 below ground and20,423 above). The total output in that year amounted to35,839,297 tons, valued at £10,369,433. The total quantityworked up to the end of 1898 was 1,514,062 tons, the quantitythen remaining to work being estimated at 4,634,785,000 tons.The quantity of coal exported in 1905 from the principalScottish ports was 7,863,511 tons, and the quantity shipped coastwiseto ports of the United Kingdom amounts annually to about212 million tons in addition.

The rise of the iron industry dates from the establishmentof the Carron ironworks near Falkirk in 1760, but it was theintroduction of railways that gave the production of pig-ironits greatest impetus. In 1796 the quantity produced was 18,640tons, which had only doubled in thirty-four years (37,500 tonsin 1830). In 1840 this had grown to 241,000 tons, in 1845 to475,000 tons and in 1865 to 1,164,000 tons, almost the heightof its prosperity, for in 1905 the product of 101 blast furnacesonly amounted to 1,375,125 tons, and in the interval there wereyears when the output was below one million tons. More thanone-third of the iron ore (that chiefly worked being Black BandIronstone) comes from mines which also yield coal. The iron-producingcounties in the order of their output are Ayr,Lanark, Renfrew, Linlithgow, Dumbarton, Fife, Midlothian andStirling, the first three being the most productive. In 1905the quantity of ore raised was 832,388 tons, valued at £320,875and yielding 249,716 tons of metal. The imports of ore in thatyear amounted to 1,862,444 tons of the value of £1,420,379.

The oil shale industry is wholly modern and has attained toconsiderable magnitude since it was established (in 1851 andfollowing years). Linlithgowshire yields nearly three-fourthsof the total output, Midlothian produces nearly one-fourth,a small quantity is obtained from Lanarkshire, and there is aninfinitesimal supply from Sutherland. The mineral is chieflyobtained from seams in the Calciferous Sandstone at the base ofthe Carboniferous rocks.

Fire-clay is produced in Lanarkshire, which yields nearly half ofthe total output, and Ayrshire and, less extensively, in Stirlingshire,Fifeshire, Renfrewshire, Midlothian and a few other shires. Withthe exception of the counties of Orkney, Shetland, Caithness, Sutherlandand Inverness, granite is quarried in every shire in Scotland,but the industry predominates in Aberdeenshire, and is of considerableimportance in Kirkcudbrightshire; limestone is quarried inhalf of the counties, but especially in Midlothian and Fife; largequantities of paving-stones are exported from Caithness and Forfarshire,and there are extensive slate quarries at Ballachulish and otherplaces in Argyllshire, which furnishes three-fourths of the totalsupply. Sandstone, of which the total production in 1905 was1,142,135 tons valued at £320,761, is quarried in nearly every count,but the industry flourishes particularly in the shires of Lanark,Dumfries, Ayr and Forfar. Lead ore occurs at Wanlockhead inDumfriesshire and Leadhills in Lanarkshire. In 1905 there wereproduced 2774 tons of dressed lead ore, of the value of £25,823,yielding 2167 tons of lead in smelting and 11,409 oz. of silver. Goldhas been found in the county of Ross and Cromarty. A smallquantity of zinc is mined in Dumfriesshire and of barytes at Lochwinnochin Renfrewshire. The precious metals were once worked atAbington in Lanarkshire and in the Ochils, and lead was mined atTyndrum in Perthshire. In 1905 there were 66 mines apart fromcoal and iron, employing altogether 5329 hands, and 1127 quarriesemploying 7390 persons inside the quarries and 4797 persons outside,or 12,187 in all. Alumina is treated at works near Foyers in theshire of Inverness, where abundant water power enables electricityto be generated cheaply. The Foyers installation is the largestwater-power plant in the United Kingdom.

Iron and Steel.—In 1901 the number of persons engaged in workingof the raw material was 23,263, of whom 8258 were employed in steelsmelting and founding, 7781 at blast furnaces in the manufacture ofpig-iron, and 7224 at puddling furnaces and rolling mills. All thegreat iron foundries and engineering works are situated in theCentral Plain or Lowlands, in close proximity to the shipbuildingyards and coalfields, especially in the lower and part of the middlewards of Lanarkshire, in certain districts of Ayrshire and Renfrewshire,at and near Dumbarton, in south Stirlingshire and in someparts of East and Mid Lothian and Fife. In 1901 the number ofpersons employed in engineering and machine-making—including24,122 ironfounders, 24,944 blacksmiths, 26,567 fitters, turners anderectors, 9767 boiler-makers and 18,618 undefined—amounted to118,736. In miscellaneous metal trades, embracing tinplate goods,wire workers, makers of stoves, grates, ranges and fire-arms, makersof bolts, nuts, rivets, screws and staples, and those occupied in severalsubsidiary trades, the number of operatives in 1901 amounted to13,209. n the same year there were 7279 persons employed in the

making of cycles, motor cars, railway coaches and waggons andcarriages and other vehicles. In the whole group of industries connectedwith the working in metals and the manufacture of machinery,implements and conveyances the total number of persons employedamounted in 1901 to 205,830.

Manufactures. (a) Wool and Worsted.—Although a companyof wool Weavers was incorporated by the town council ofEdinburgh in 1475, the cloth worn by the wealthier classes downto the beginning of the 17th century was of English or Frenchmanufacture, the lower classes wearing “coarse cloth made athome,” a custom still prevalent in the remoter districts of theHighlands. In 1601 seven Flemings were brought to Edinburghto teach the manufacture of serges and broadcloth, and eightyears later a company of Flemings was established in theCanongate (Edinburgh) for the manufacture of cloth under theprotection of the king; but, notwithstanding also the establishmentin 1681 of an English company for the manufacture ofwoollen fabrics near Haddington, the industry for long madelittle progress. In fact its importance dates from the introductionof machinery in the 19th century. The most important branchof the trade, that of tweeds, first began to attract attentionshortly after 1830; though still having its principal seat in thedistrict from which it takes its name, including Galashiels,Hawick, Innerleithen and Selkirk, it has extended to othertowns, especially Aberdeen, Elgin, Inverness, Stirling, Bannockburn,Dumfries and Paisley. Carpet manufacture has had itsprincipal seat in Kilmarnock since 1817, but is also carried onin Aberdeen, Ayr, Bannockbum, Glasgow, Paisley and elsewhere.Tartans are largely manufactured in Tillicoultry,Bannockburn and Kilmarnock, and shawls and plaids in severaltowns. Fingering and many other kinds of woollen yarns aremanufactured at Alloa, the headquarters of the industry. In1901 the number of operatives in the woollen industry (includingcombers and sorters, spinners, weavers and workers in otherprocesses) amounted to 24,906. In 1850 the employed numbered10,210.

(b) Flax, Hemp and Jute.—The manufacture of cloth fromflax is of very ancient date, and towards the close of the 16thcentury Scottish linen cloths were largely exported to foreigncountries, as well as to England. Regulations in regard to themanufacture were passed in 1641 and 1661. In a petitionpresented to the privy council in 1684, complaining of the severetreatment of Scotsmen selling linen in England, it was statedthat 12,000 persons were engaged in the manufacture. Throughthe intercession of the secretary of state with the king theserestrictions were removed. Further to encourage the trade itwas enacted in 1686 that the bodies of all persons, exceptingpoor tenants and cotters, should be buried in plain linen only,spun and made within the kingdom. The act was renewedin 1693 and 1695, and in the former year another act was passedprohibiting the export of lint and permitting its import free ofduty. At the time of the Union the annual amount of linencloth manufactured in Scotland is supposed to have been about1,500,000 yards. The Union gave a considerable impetus tothe manufacture, as did also the establishment of the Board ofManufactures in 1727, which applied an annual sum of £2650to its encouragement, and in 1729 established a colony of FrenchProtestants in Edinburgh, on the site of the present PicardyPlace, to teach the spinning and weaving of cambric. Fromthe 1st of November 1727 to the 1st of November 1728 theamount of linen cloth stamped was 2,183,978 yds., valued at£103,312, but for the year ending the 1st of November 1822,when the regulations as to the inspection and stamping of linenceased, it had increased to 36,268,530 yds., valued at £1,396,296.The counties in which the manufacture is now most largelycarried on are Forfar, Perth, Fife and Aberdeen, but Renfrew,Lanark, Edinburgh and Ayr are also extensively associatedwith it. Dundee is the principal seat of the coarser fabrics,Dunfermline of the table and other finer linens, while Paisleyis widely known for its sewing threads. The allied industryof jute is the staple industry of Dundee. In 1890 the numberemployed in the linen industry was 34,222, which had declinedin 1901 to 23,570. Inf 1890 the operatives in the jute and hempindustry numbered 39,885, and in 1901 they were (includingworkers in canvas, sacking, sailcloth, rope, twine, mats, cocoafibre) 46,550.

(c) Cotton.—The first cotton mill was built at Rothesay byan English company in 1779, though Penicuik also lays claimto priority. The Rothesay mill was soon afterwards acquiredby David Dale, who was the agent for Sir Richard Arkwright,and had the invaluable aid of his counsel and advice. Dalealso established cotton factories in 1785 at New Lanark, afterwardsso closely associated with the socialistic schemes of hisson-in-law, Robert Owen. The counties of Lanark and Renfreware now the principal seats of the industry. The great majorityof the cotton factories are concentrated in Glasgow, Paisleyand the neighbouring towns, but the industry extends in otherdistricts of the west and is also represented in the counties ofAberdeen, Perth and Stirling. As compared with England,however, the manufacture has stagnated. The number ofhands employed in 1850 was 34,325, in 1875 it was 35,652 andin 1901 (including bleachers, dyers, printers, calenderers, &c.)it was 34,057.

(d) Silk and other Textiles.—The principal seats of the silkmanufacture are Paisley and Glasgow. In 1885 the numberemployed amounted to 600 and in 1901 to 2424. The weavingof lace curtains has made considerable progress, in 1878 only45 hands being employed against 2875 in 1901. Hosiery manufactures,a characteristic Border industry, with its chief seatat Hawick, employed 11,957 hands in 1901. The total numberof persons working in textile fabrics in 1901, exclusive of 21,849drapers, mercers and other dealers, but including 43,040 employedin mixed or unspecified materials (hosiery, lace, carpets, rugs,fancy goods, &c., besides a large number of “undefined” factoryhands and weavers), amounted to 174,547 persons.

(e) Whisky and Beer.—Scotland claims a distinctive manufacturein whisky. Though distillation was originally introducedfrom England, by 1771 large quantities of spirits were alreadybeing consigned to the English market. The legal manufactureof whisky was greatly checked in the earlier part of the 19thcentury by occasional advances in the duty, but after the reductionof 2s. 4¾d. per proof gallon in 1823—the duty amountedin 1904 to 11s. per proof gallon—the number of licensed distillersrapidly increased, to the discouragement of smuggling andillicit distillation. In 1824 the number of gallons made amountedto 5,108,373; by 1855 this had more than doubled; in 1884it was 20,164,962; in 1900 it reached 31,798,465; and in 1904it had receded to 27,110,977. More than four-fifths of thedistilleries at work in the United Kingdom are situated inScotland. The leading distilling counties are Argyll, Banff,Elgin, Inverness and Aberdeen, Perth and Ross and Cromarty,while the industry is found in seventeen other shires. In 1893-1894the total net duty received for home-made spirits amountedto £5,461,198 and in 1903-1904 to £7,276,125. The productionhas attained to colossal dimensions. In 1893-1894 the quantityof proof gallons in bond was 61,275,754, and in 1903-1904 itamounted to 121,397,951, the production having practicallydoubled itself within ten years. Ale was a common beverageas early as the 12th century, one or more breweries being attachedto every religious house and barony. So general was its use evenin the beginning of the 18th century that the threatened impositionof a tax on malt in 1725 provoked serious riots in Glasgowand clamour for repeal of the Union; and sixty years afterwardsRobert Burns in certain poems voiced the popular sentimentconcerning the “curst restrictions” proposed by the Exciseon beer and whisky. Though ale has been superseded by whiskyas the national beverage, brewing is extensively carried on inEdinburgh, whose ales are in high repute, Leith, Alloa and elsewhere.In 1885 the number of barrels of beer, duty-paid,amounted to 1,237,323; in 1893-1894 to 1,733,407; and in1903-1904 to 1,877,978. In 1893-1894 the duty (6s. 3d. thebarrel) yielded £473,311 and in 1903-1904 (7s. 9d. the barrel)£649,080. After 1893-1894, when the number of brewers licensedto brew for sale numbered 149, there was a steady fall to 117 in 1903-1904, alleged by the Inland Revenue Commissionersto be due to the disappearance of the small brewer. The practiceof private brewing exhibits a still greater decline—from 272 to84 in the years named. Notwithstanding the enormous turnoverand output and the large capital invested, neither distilling norbrewing gives employment to many hands, the figures for 1901being 1330 maltsters, 2052 brewers and 1970 distillers.

(f) Miscellaneous.—Paper, stationery and printing areindustries in which Scotland has always occupied a foremostposition. A paper mill was erected in 1675 at Dalry on theWater of Leith in which French operatives were employed to giveinstruction, with the result, in the words of the proprietors, that“grey and blue paper was produced much finer than ever wasdone before in the kingdom.” Midlothian has never lost thelead then secured. The paper mills at Penicuik and elsewhere inthe vale of the Esk and around Edinburgh are flourishingconcerns, and the industry is also vigorously conducted nearAberdeen. Stationery is largely manufactured at Glasgow,Aberdeen and Edinburgh. In 1901 the number of personsemployed in the paper and stationery industries amounted to19,602. Ever since it was established byAndrew Myllar and Walter Chepman, early inthe 16th century, the Edinburgh press has beenrenowned for the beauty and excellence of itstypography, a large proportion of the booksissued by London publishers emanating fromthe printing works of the Scottish capital.Printing is also extensively carried on in Glasgowand Aberdeen, and Cupar once enjoyed considerablerepute for its press. The number of personsengaged in the production of books and other printed matter (including lithographers, Copper, steel plate and“process” printers, bookbinders, publishers, booksellers anddistributors) amounted in 1901 to 24,139. The first sugar refinerywas erected in 1765 at Greenock, which, despite periodicalvicissitudes, has remained the principal seat of the industry,which is also carried on at Leith, Glasgow and Dundee. Themaking of preserves and confectionery flourishes in Dundee,Aberdeen, Paisley and Edinburgh. Kirkcaldy is the seat of theoil floor-cloth and linoleum industries, the latter introduced in1877. The headquarters of the chemicals manufacture aresituated in Glasgow and the vicinity, while explosives are chieflymanufactured at Stevenston and elsewhere in Ayrshire, and atcertain places on the Argyll coast. Among occupations providingemployment for large numbers were trades in connexion withbuilding and works of construction (136,639 persons in 1901),and furniture and timber (39,000), while the conveyance ofpassengers, parcels and messages employed 163,102 (railway,43,037; roads, 53,813; sea, rivers and canals, 20,451; docks,harbours and lighthouses, 10,659; and storage, porterage andmessages, 35,142).

Commerce and Shipping.—That Scotland had a considerabletrade with foreign countries at a very early period may beinferred from the importation of rich dresses by Malcolm III.(d. 1093), and the enjoyment of Oriental luxuries by Alexander I.(d. 1124). His successor, David I., receives the special praise ofFordun for enriching “the ports of his kingdom with foreignmerchandise.” In the 13th century the Scots had acquired aconsiderable celebrity in shipbuilding; and a powerful Frenchbaron had a ship specially built at Inverness in 1249 to conveyhim and his vassals to the Holy Land. The principal shipownersat this period were the clergy, who embarked the wealth of theirreligious houses in commercial enterprises. Definite statementsregarding the number and tonnage of shipping are, however,lacking till the 18th century. From two reports printed by theScottish Burgh Record Society in 1881, it appears that thenumber of vessels belonging to the principal ports—Leith,Dundee, Glasgow, Kirkcaldy and Montrose—in 1656 was 58,the tonnage being 3140, and that by 1692 they had increased to97 of 5905 tons. These figures only represent a portion of thetotal shipping of the kingdom. At the time of the Union in1707 the number of vessels was 215 of 14,485 tons.

Table XIV.—Showing Registered Tonnage in Port in Specified Years.

1850.1860.1870.1884.1900.1905.
No.Tons.No.Tons.No.Tons.No.Tons.No.Tons.No.Tons.
Sailingvessels3432491,3953172552,2122715727,9422065827,2951104709,430918578,340
Steam vessels16930,82731471,579582209,1421403866,78019801,528,03223303,139,558
Total3601522,2223486623,7913297937,08434681,694,07530842,237,46232483,717,898

Table XIV. gives the figures of the registered tonnage in port in1850 and later specified years, which are interesting as showing how,while sailing vessels declined during the half century to one-thirdof their number in 1850, steam vessels increased thirteen fold. It istrue that the tonnage of the 918 sailing vessels of 1905 was considerablyin excess of that of the 3432 sailing vessels of 1850, but evenso it was a declining figure from a higher tonnage of the middle of theperiod. On the other hand, during fifty-five years the tonnage ofsteamers had grown to be a hundred times as large as it was in1850. Table XV. illustrates the development that took place in theshipping trade with foreign countries and British possessions, aswell as the expansion of the coasting trade, in 1855-1905, certainyears being taken as types.

Table XV.—Foreign and Colonial and Coastwise Trade: Tonnage of Vessels.

Year.Coastwise.Colonial and Foreign.Total.
Entered.Cleared.Entered.Cleared.Entered.Cleared.
18551,963,5522,057,936668,078840,1502,631,6302,898,086
18806,628,8535,691,1362,700,9153,001,8979,329,7688,693,033
18897,188,7636,998,5163,931,0104,412,60711,119,77311,411,123
18989,256,2338,937,4815,510,9276,296,55514,767,16015,234,036
19007,213,5746,791,9595,657,2006,602,54512,870,77413,394,504
19059,928,6749,500,1606,268,7457,478,57916,197,41916,978,739

Table XVI.—Showing Growth of Foreign and Colonial Trade since 1755.

Year.Imports.Exports.
££
1755464,411535,576
17901,688,3371,235,405
17951,268,520976,791
18002,212,7902,340,069
18153,447,8536,997,709
18254,994,3045,842,296
18518,921,1085,016,116
187431,012,75017,912,932
188034,997,65218,243,078
188430,600,25820,322,355
188936,771,01622,310,006
189836,224,98223,643,143
190038,691,24532,166,561
190340,396,28032,301,198

Table XVI. exhibits the growth of the foreign and colonial tradeat specified dates since 1755, showing how it advanced by leaps andbounds during the latter part of the 19th century. Though the valueof imports into Scotland is less than one-eleventh of that into England,this does not represent the due proportion of foreign wares used andconsumed in Scotland, for the obvious reason that large quantitiesof goods are brought into the country by rail, nearly all the tea, forexample, consumed in Great Britain being imported into London,while several ports have almost a monopoly of certain other imports.Foreign and colonial merchandise transhipped was valued at£989,289 in 1889 and at £746,246 in 1903. The customs revenue rosefrom £1,965,080 in 1894 to £3,399,141 in 1903. Judged by thecombined value of their imports and exports the chief ports areas shown in the first section of Table XVII. Their status is modifiedby the movements of shipping, and for purposes of comparisonthe entrance and clearance tonnage of the trade with British coloniesand foreign countries and of the coastwise traffic are exhibited in thesecond and third sections of the same table. The favourableposition occupied by Greenock in the third section is due to itspreponderating share of the traffic with the west coast and theislands. Its share of the Irish and coasting trade likewise accountsfor the position of Ardrossan in the same section. It should beadded that on the figures of import and export value in 1909,Aberdeen had changed places with, Methil, and Burntisland withGranton. The figure for Glasgow in that year was £41,238,867.

Table XVII.—Chief Ports (1905).

Port.Order.Imports
and
Exports.
£
Order.Colonial
and
Foreign
Tonnage
InandOut.
Order.Coastwise
Tonnage
InandOut.
Glasgow138,291,76214,472,07114,257,957
Leith217,975,97822,210,01541,410,160
Grangemouth36,273,31741,425,9786859,177
Dundee45,657,5837320,1037807,159
Greenock52,046,45710 202,33623,348,928
Methil61,127,93131,716,3558542,244
Aberdeen71,035,2338217,41031,613,966
Granton8933,4809202,90110 230,458
Burntisland9846,74151,305,9459294,261
Ardrossan10 651,1246326,35651,094,439

Shipbuilding.—Many of the most important improvementsin the construction of ships, especially steam vessels, are due to theenterprise and skill of the Clyde shipbuilders, who, from the timeof Robert Napier of Shandon (1791-1876), who built and enginedthe first steamers for the Cunard Company, formed in 1840,have enjoyed an unrivalled reputation for the construction ofleviathan liners, both as regards mechanical appliances and thebeauty and convenience of the internal arrangements. Theprincipal Clyde yards are situated in the Glasgow district (Govan,Partick, Fairfield, Clydebank, Renfrew), Dumbarton, PortGlasgow and Greenock. At several of the ports on the lowerfirth, as at Ardrossan and Fairlie, famous for its yachts, theindustry is also carried on. On the east coast the leading yardsare at Leith, Kirkcaldy, Grangemouth, Dundee, Peterhead andAberdeen, which, in the days of sailing ships, was renowned forits clippers built for the tea trade. There are yards also atInverness.

Postal Service.—Towards the end of the 16th century thepractice arose of regular communication by letter between themagistrates of the larger towns and the seat of government inEdinburgh. After the accession of James VI. to the throne ofEngland, the necessity for an ordered method of intercoursebetween the Scottish capital and London became urgent, butthe plans adopted involved extraordinary delay, for it notinfrequently happened that there was an interval of two monthsbetween the despatch of a letter and the receipt of a reply.Such a leisurely fashion of transacting business soon grewintolerable, and in 1635 a system of relays was instituted whichenabled the journey between the two cities to be accomplishedin three days, the charge for a letter being 8d. The service wasreorganized in 1662, and in 1711 the postal establishments ofthe United Kingdom, hitherto conducted independently in eachcountry, were consolidated into one. When this reform waseffected the cost of a letter to London was reduced to 6d. Threeyears before this date a local penny post had been provided inEdinburgh by private enterprise, carried on by a staff of sevenpersons, and after the success of this effort had been demonstratedthe concern was taken over by the post office. Subsequentlypostal business stagnated, mainly owing to the greatlyincreased charges (the postage of a letter from London to Edinburghis stated to have cost 1s. 4½d.), until the system of uniformpenny postage came into operation. The telephones are mainlyconducted by the post office and the National Telephone Company,but the corporation of Glasgow has a municipal service.

Religion.—The bulk of the population is Presbyterian, thisform of Church government having generally obtained, in spiteof persecution and other vicissitudes, since the Reformation. Itis accepted equally by the Established Church, the United Free,the Free and other smaller Presbyterian bodies, the principalpoint distinguishing the first-named from the rest being that itaccepts the headship of the sovereign. The Episcopal Church ofScotland, which is in communion with the Church of England,claims to represent the ancient Catholic Church of the country.

See Scotland, Church of; also Free Church of Scotland;United Presbyterian Church; Presbyterianism; andScotland, Episcopal Church of.

Parliamentary Government.—By the Act of Unionin 1707 Scotland ceased to have a separate parliament,and its government was assimilated to thatof England. In the parliament of Great Britain itsrepresentation was fixed at sixteen peers elected inHolyrood Palace by the peers of Scotland at eachnew parliament in the House of Lords, and atforty-five members in the House of Commons, thecounties returning thirty and the burghs fifteen.The power of the sovereign to create new Scottishpeerages lapsed at the Union, and consequentlytheir number is a diminishing quantity. By theReform Act of 1832 the number of Scottishrepresentatives in the Commons was raised to fifty-three,the counties under a slightly altered arrangementreturning thirty members as before, and the burghs,reinforced by the erection of various towns into parliamentaryburghs, twenty-three; the second Reform Act (1867) increasedthe number to sixty, the universities obtaining representation bytwo members, while two additional members were assigned tothe counties and three to the burghs; by the Redistribution ofSeats Act in 1885 an addition of seven members was made to therepresentation of the counties and five to that of the burghs,the total representation being raised to seventy-two. Themanagement of Scottish business in parliament has since 1885been under the charge of the secretary for Scotland.[6]

Law.—At the Union Scotland retained its old system of law andlegal administration, a system modelled on that of France; but sincethe Union the laws of England and Scotland have been on manypoints assimilated, the criminal law of the two countries being nowpractically identical, although the methods of procedure are in manyrespects different. The Court of Session, as the supreme court incivil causes is called, which is held at Edinburgh, dates from 1532,and was formed on the model of the parlemenl of Paris. Since theUnion it has undergone certain modifications. It consists of thirteenjudges, acting in an Inner and an Outer House. The Inner Househas two divisions, with four judges each, the first being presidedover by the lord president of the whole court, and the second bythe lord justice clerk. In the Outer House five judges, called lordsordinary, sit in separate courts. Appeals may be made from thelords ordinary to either of the divisions of the Inner House, and, ifthe occasion demands, the opinion of all the judges of the Court ofSession may be called for; but whether this be done or not the decisionis regarded as a decision of the Court of Session. Appeals maybe made from the Court of Session to the House of Lords. The lordjustice general (lord president), the lord justice clerk and the otherjudges of the Court of Session form the High Court of justiciary,instituted in 1672, for criminal cases, which sits at Edinburgh for thetrial of cases from the three Lothians and of cases referred from thecircuit courts. The latter meet for the south at jedburgh, Dumfriesand Ayr; for the west at Glasgow, Inveraray and Stirling; and forthe north at Perth, Aberdeen, Dundee and Inverness. The law agentswho undertake cases to be decided before the supreme courts' areeither solicitors before the supreme courts (S.S.C.) or writers to thesignet (W.S.), the latter of whom possess certain special privileges.The lawyer authorized to plead before the supreme courts is termedan advocate. The principal law officer of the crown is the lordadvocate, who is assisted by the solicitor-general and by advocates depute.The practical administration of the law in a county isunder the control of the sheriff-depute, who combines with hisjudicial duties certain administrative functions. The office, whichonce implied a much less restricted authority than at present, is asold as the reign of Alexander I. (d. 1124), when the greater part of thekingdom was divided into twenty-five sheriffdoms. In the latterpart of the 13th century they numbered thirty-four, but now thereare only fifteen sheriffs in all, who, excepting the sheriff for Lanarkshire,need not reside in the counties to which they are appointed andare not prohibited from private practice. They-arc assisted bysheriffs-substitute upon whom the bulk of the work falls, who mustbe residential and are debarred from private practice. At one timethe functions of the sheriff-principal were confined to one county,but by an act passed in 1855 it was arranged that as sheriffdoms fellvacant certain counties should be grouped under the control of onesheriff-principal. Thus Aberdeen, Kincardine and Banff form onegroup, and the three Lothians with Peebles another. The publicprosecutor for counties is the procurator-fiscal, who takes the

initiative in regard to suspected cases of sudden death, although inthis respect the law of Scotland is less strict than that of England.Justices of the peace, who are unpaid and require no special qualification,but as they are recommended by the lord-lieutenant, aregenerally persons of position in the county, once exercised a widersubordinate jurisdiction than now devolves upon them, their chiefadministrative function being to act along with certain members ofthe county councils, as the licensing authority for public-houses inthe county and in police burghs, and as a court of appeal from thedecisions of the bailies in royal and parliamentary burghs.

Local Government.—The largest administrative unit is that of thecounty, but the areas of counties may be adapted to meet variouspublic or political requirements. They may be altered for thepurposes of the registrar-general, and for police purposes part of thearea of one county may be brought into the area of another. Forparliamentary purposes some counties have been united, as Clackmannanand Kinross, Elgin and Nairn, Orkney and Shetland, andPeebles and Selkirk, and others divided, as Aberdeen, Ayr, Lanark,Perth and Renfrew, while others retain in certain respects theirold subdivision, Lanarkshire for assessment purposes being stillpartitioned into the upper, middle and lower wards. Originally thecounties were synonymous either with sheriffdoms or stewartries.Stewartries ceased with the abolition of hereditary jurisdictions in1748, though Kirkcudbrightshire still bears the designation. Thecounties are thirty-three in number, Ross and Cromarty constitutingone, while Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee are each acounty of a city. The highest county dignitary is the lord-lieutenant,the office dating from 1782. Nominated by the crown, he holdsoffice aut vitam aut culpam, represents the crown in military matters,recommends for commissions of the peace, holds the position of highsheriff, and is a member of the standing joint committee. The office,however, is little more than honorary. In olden times there werethree classes of burgh. Those created by charter directly from theCrown were styled royal burghs: they number seventy in all, ofwhich no fewer than seventeen belong to Fifeshire. Those holdingtheir charters from a feudal superior and not from the crown werecalled burghs of regality, their magistrates and council being usuallyappointed by the overlord or his representative. Being small andunimportant, these burghs were not affected by the act of 1833, butin 1892 were required to adopt the constitution of police burghs.Towns that received their charters from bishops were burghs ofbarony, their magistrates and council being appointed by thesuperior. When the bishop's jurisdiction was abolished, the burghsas a rule assumed the position of royal burghs. Police burghs arewholly modern, dating from the middle of the 19th century. Theywere called into existence by the rapid growth of certain districtscaused by the development of the coal and iron fields. The principleon which they are established may be briefly stated thus: townswith a minimum population of 800 can, on a poll demanded by theratepayers showing a majority in favour of it, acquire the status of apolice burgh subject to representations from neighbouring burghs,a proviso devised to check the growth of “parasitic” burghs in theimmediate vicinity of a great centre of population and industry,enjoying all the public improvements initiated by their powerfulneighbour and yet contributing nothing towards the cost and upkeepof them. It should be noted that, according to Scottish usage,“police” includes drainage, the suppression of nuisances, paving,lighting and cleansing, in addition to the provision of a constabularyforce, and that in point of fact, paradoxical as it appears, the bulkof the police burghs do not manage their police. Royal burghsderive part of their income from ancient corporate property knownas “the Common Good” and consisting mostly of land and houses.It is devoted to objects for which the rates are not applicable.Glasgow, for example, might found a chair in the University fromthe Common Good but not from the rates, and Edinburgh maintainsfrom the same source the city observatory and defrays part of thecost of the time-gun. Only Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee, Greenock,Aberdeen and Paisley have private and local acts, conferring powersexceeding the general law, to deal with, e.g. overcrowding, the obnoxiousdisplay of advertisem*nts, the compulsory acquisition ofland for gas, water or electric-power enterprises, all the other burghsbeing governed by Public General Acts. This is in marked contrastwith the practice in England, where almost every large boroughhas its own private act. The corporation of the burghs consistsof the provost (or lord provost, in the cases of Edinburgh, Glasgow,Aberdeen and Dundee), bailies and councillors, with certain permanentofficials, of whom the town clerk is the most important.The course of reform may now be concisely summarized. In 1833Scottish burghs were for the first time entitled to be governed bydirectly-elected bodies, and at various times since that date fullerpowers of legal self-government were granted in different directions.In 1845 parochial boards were created for relief of the poor, theirpowers being afterwards extended to deal with the statutes concerningburial-grounds, the registration of births, deaths and marriages,vaccination, public health, public libraries and other matters. In1872 school boards were set up throughout the country; countycouncils followed in 1889 and parish councils in 1894. These reformsprofoundly modified and in some cases abolished older organizationswhich had grown inadequate to modern wants. The Commissionersof Supply, originally appointed to apportion and collect the nationalrevenue and afterwards entrusted with the regulation of the landtax, the control of the county police, the raising of the militia, andthe levying of rates for county expenditure, were practically supersededby the county councils, which are also the local authorityunder the Contagious Diseases (Animals) and the Public HealthActs in all parishes (burghs and police burghs excepted), perform theadministrative duties formerly entrusted to the justices of the peace,and may also enforce the Rivers Pollution Act each within its ownjurisdiction. The county councils are strengthened by certain specialcommittees, such as the secondary education committee, whose dutieshave already been defined, and the standing joint committee—onehalf appointed by the county council, the other half by the Commissionersof Supply—which manages the county police and whoseconsent in writing must be obtained before the county council canundertake any work involving capital outlay. All but the smallestcounties are subdivided into districts, and the Road Acts and PublicHealth Acts are administered in these areas by district committees,composed of members of the county council for the district and onerepresentative of each parish council within the area. The act of1894, as we have seen, not only established the Local GovernmentBoard, consisting of the secretary for Scotland, the solicitor-general,the under-secretary and three appointed members—a vice-president,a lawyer and a medical officer of) public health—but also replaced theparochial boards by parish councils, empowered to deal among otherthings with poor relief, lunacy, vaccination, libraries, baths, recreationgrounds, disused churchyards, rights of way, parochial endowments,and the formation of special lighting and scavenging districts.

(J. A. M.) 

III. Political History.

Scotland, to political observers of the middle of the 16thcentury, seemed destined by nature to form one hom*ogeneouskingdom with England. The outward frontiers of both werethe sea; no difficult physical barriers divided the two territories;the majority of Scots spoke an intelligible form of English,differing from northern English more in spelling and pronunciationthan in idiom and vocabulary; and after the Reformationthe State religion in both countries was Protestant. Yet, inspite of these causes making for union, and in spite of the manifestadvantages of union, it was by a mere dynastic accidentthat, in the defect of nearer heirs to the English throne, thecrowns of both kingdoms were worn by James VI. (1603), whilemore than a century of unrest and war had to elapse before theunion of England and Scotland into one kingdom in 1707. Evenlater there broke forth civil wars that, apart from dynasticsentiment, had no political aim except “to break the Union.”Thus for seven hundred years the division of the isle of Britainwas a constant cause of weakness and public distress. Nothingdid more to bring the two peoples together than religion, afterthe Reformation, yet, by an unhappy turn of affairs, andmainly thanks to one man, John Knox, few causes were morepotent than religious differences in delaying that complete unionwhich nature herself seemed to desire.

The historical causes which kept the nations separate weremainly racial, though, from a very early period, the majority ofEarly conditions.the people of Scotland were, if not purely English byblood, anglicized in language and, to a great extent,in institutions. All questions of race are dim, forsuch a thing as a European people of pure unmixed blood isprobably unknown in experience. In A.D. 78-82 Agricola,carrying the Eagles of Rome beyond the line of the historicalborder, encountered tribes and confederations of tribes which,probably, spoke, some in Gaelic, some in Brythonic varieties ofthe Celtic language. That the language had been imposed, ina remote age, by Celtic-speaking invaders, on a prior non-Celtic-speakingpopulation, is probable enough, but is not demonstrated.There exist in Scotland a few inscriptions on stones, in Ogam,which yield no sense in any known Indo-European language.There are also traces of the persistence of descent in the femaleline, especially in the case of the Pictish royal family, but suchsurvivals of savage institutions, or such a modification of maledescent for the purpose of ensuring the purity of the royal blood,yield no firm ground for a decision as to whether the Picts were“Aryans” or “non-Aryans.”

It is unnecessary here to discuss the Pictish problem (seeCelt). That their rivals, the Scots, were a Gaelic-speakingpeople is certain. That the Picts were Teutons (Pinkerton) isno longer believed. That they were non-Aryan, the theory of Sir John Rhys, seems improbable; for the non-English place-namesof Scotland are either Gaelic or Brythonic (more or lessWelsh), and the names of Pictish kings are either common toGaelic and Welsh (or Cymric, or Brythonic), or are Welsh intheir phonetics. Mr Skene held that the Picts were a Gaelic-speakingpeople, but the weight of philological authority iswith Mr Whitley Stokes, who says that Pictish phonetics, “sofar as we can ascertain them, resemble those of Welsh ratherthan of Irish” (see Zimmer, Das Mutterrecht der Pikten; Rhys,Royal Commission's Report on Land in Wales, Celtic Britain,Rhind Lectures; Skene's Celtic Scotland; J. G. Frazer, Lectureson the Early History of the Kingship, p. 247; Macbain's edition,1902, of Skene's Highlanders of Scotland).

The Roman occupation has left not many material relics inScotland, and save for letting a glimmer of Christianity into thesouth-west, did nothing which permanently affected the institutions ofthe partially subjugated peoples. In A.D. 81-82Agricola garrisoned the Roman frontier between Forth andClyde, and in 84 he fought and won a great battle farther north,probably on the line of the Tay. His enemies were men of theearly iron age, and used the chariot in war. They fought withcourage, but were no match for Roman discipline; it was,however, impossible to follow them into their mountain fortresses,nor were the difficulties of pursuit thoroughly overcometill after the battle of Culloden in 1746. The most importantRoman stations which have hitherto been excavated are thoseof Birrenswark, on the north side of Solway Firth; Ardoch,near the historical battlefield of Sheriffmuir (1715); and Newstead,a site first occupied by Agricola, under the Eildon hills.Roman roads extended, with camps, as far as the Moray Firth.It is not till A.D. 300 that we read of “the Caledonians and otherPicts”; in the 4th century they frequently harried the Romansup to the wall of Hadrian, between Tyne and Solway. Aboutthe end of the century the southern Picts of Galloway, and tribesfarther north, were partially converted by St Ninian, from thecandida casa of Whithern. The Scots, from Ireland, also nowcome into view, the name of Scotland being derived from that ofa people really Irish in origin, who spoke a Gaelic (see Celtic)akin to that of the Caledonians, and were in a similar stageof higher barbarism. The Scots made raids, but, as yet, nonational settlement.

The withdrawal of the Romans from Britain (410) left thenorthern part of the island as a prey to be fought for by warliketribes, of whom the most notable were the Picts in the north,the Scots or Dalriads from Ireland in the west (Argyll), theCymric or Welsh peoples in the south-west and between Forthand Tay, and the Teutonic invaders, Angles or English, in thesouth-east.

If the Picts had been able to win and hold Scotland as farsouth as the historic border, the fortunes of the country wouldprobably have been more or less like those of Ireland. Afterthe Norman Conquest, England would have subjugated theCelts and held Scotland by a tenure less precarious and disputedthan they possessed in the western island. Scotland would havebeen, at most, a larger Wales. But in the struggle for existenceit chanced that the early English invaders secured a kingdom,Bernicia, which stretched from the Humber into Lothian, orfarther north, as the fortune of battle might at various timesdetermine; and thus, from the centre to the south-east ofwhat is now Scotland, the people had come to be anglicized inspeech before the Norman Conquest, though Gaelic survivedmuch later in Galloway. The English domain comprised,roughly speaking, the modern counties of Selkirkshire, Peeblesshire,Berwickshire, Roxburghshire and most of the Lothians,while south of Tweed it contained Northumberland, Durhamand Yorkshire to the Humber. In later days the Celtic kingsof northern and western Scotland succeeded in holding, on vagueconditions of homage to the English crown, the English-speakingregion of historic Scotland. That region was the most fertile,had the best husbandry, and possessed the most civilized population,a people essentially English in language and institutions,but indomitably attached to the Celtic dynasties of the westernand northern part of the island. It was the English-speakingsouth-east part of Scotland, gradually extended so as to compriseFife and the south-west (Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, Stirlingshire,Dumbartonshire, Ayrshire and Renfrewshire), whichlearned to adopt the ideas of western Europe in matters political,municipal and ecclesiastical, while it never would submit to thedomination of the English crown. This English element, in anation ruled by a Celtic dynasty, prevented Scotland frombecoming, like Wales, a province of England.

On the west of the northern part of the English kingdom ofBernicia, severed from that by the Forest of Ettrick, and perhapsby the mysterious work of which traces remain in the “Catrail,”was the Brython or Welsh kingdom of Strathclyde, which thenincluded the territory and population, later anglicized, of Renfrewshire,Ayrshire, Lanarkshire, Dumfriesshire, and, south of thehistoric border, Cumberland and Westmoreland to the Derwent.Strathclyde was essentially Welsh, and it may be noted that thisregion, centuries later, was the centre of the recalcitrant Covenanters,a people enthusiastically religious in their own way.Later, this region was the hotbed or “revivals” and the cradleof Irvingism. Whether the influence of Cymric blood may betraced in these characteristics is a dubious question.

While southern Scotland was thus English and Cymric, thenorth, from Cape Wrath to Lochaber, in the west, and to theFirth of Tay, on the east, was Pictland; and the vernacularspoken there was the Gaelic. The west, south of Lochaber tothe Mull of Kintyre, with the isles of Bute, Islay, Arran and Jura,was the realm of the Dalriadic kings, Scots from Ireland (503):here, too, Gaelic was spoken, as among the “Southern Picts”of the kingdom of Galloway. Such, roughly speaking, were thedivisions of the country which arose as results of the obscurewars of the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries.

As regards Christianity in these regions, Protestantism,Presbyterianism and patriotism find here a battle-ground. TheChristianity.mission of St Ninian (397) was that of a native of theRoman province of Britain, and the church whichhe founded would bear the same relation to Romeas did the church in Britain. There are material relics of hischurch, bearing the Christian monogram, and there are stoneswith Latin epitaphs; these objects are wholly unlike the Irishcrosses and inscriptions of the Gaelic church. If Bede is rightin saying that Ninian was trained in Rome, then the earlyChristianity of Scotland was Roman.

In 431 the contemporary Chronica of Prosper of Aquitainerecord that Palladius was ordained by Pope Celestine as the firstbishop “to the believing Scots,” that is, to the Irish. If therewere “believing Scots” in Ireland before the first bishop wasordained, their ecclesiastical constitution cannot have beenepiscopal. Fordun, in the 14th century, supposed that theclergy, before Palladius, were presbyters or monks. As HectorBoece, “that pillar of falsehood,” dubbed these presbyters“Culdees,” “the pure Culdee,” a blameless Presbyterian,almost prehistoric, has been claimed as the ancestor of ScottishPresbyterianism; and episcopacy has been regarded as a deplorableinnovation. The Irish church has paid more reverence toSt Patricius than to Palladius (373-463), and the church of StPatricius, himself a figure as important as obscure, certainlyabounded in bishops; according to Angus the Culdee there were1071, but these cannot have been bishops with territorial sees,and the heads of monasteries were more potent personages.

The Dalriadic settlers in Argyll and the Isles, the (Irish)Scots, were Christians in the Irish manner. Their defeat by thePicts, in 560, induced the Irish St Columba to endeavour toconvert the conquering Picts. In 563-565 he founded his missionand monastery in the isle of Iona, and journeying to Invernesshe converted the king of the Picts. About the same date (573),the king of Cymric Strathclyde summoned, from exile in Wales,St Kentigern, the patron saint of Glasgow, who restored a Christianityalmost or quite submerged in paganism, Celtic and English.The pagan English of Deira (603) routed under Æthelfrith theChristian Scots of Argyll between Liddesdale and North Tyne;and pagan English for more than a century held unopposed the region from Forth to Humber. In 617 Æthelfrith fell in battlewith the English of East Anglia, and his sons, Eanfrid and Oswald,fled to the North. Eanfrid, by his marriage with a Pictishprincess, became the father of the Pictish king Talorcan, whileOswald was baptized into the Columban church at Iona. In aseason of war and turmoil Oswald won the crown of the north-eastEnglish kingdom, stretching to the Forth, with its capitalat Eadwinsburgh (? Edinburgh, a dubious etymology), and inthat kingdom St Aidan, from Iona, erected the Columbanchurches under the auspices of Oswald, whose brother Oswindominated Strathclyde and Pictland up to the Grampians;the English element, for the time, extending itself and anglicizingmore and more of the Scotland that was to be.

Thus the Dalriadic Scots had handed on the gift of IrishChristianity, with such literature as accompanied it in the shapeof Latin, and reading and writing, to the northern English fromForth to Humber. The ecclesiastical constitution thus introducedwas one of missionary monastic stations, settled in fortifiedvillages. The Celtic church, unluckily, differed from the Romanon the question of the method of calculating the date of Easter,the form of the tonsure, and other usages, one of them apparentlyrelating to a detail in the celebration of the Holy Communion.From a letter to Pope Boniface IV. of an Irish saint Columbanus,who led twelve Irish monks into Gaul and Burgundy, the Celticchurch appears to have denied that the papal jurisdictionextended beyond the limits of the Roman empire. ConsequentlyRome would have no jurisdiction in the affairs of the Irish churchestablished in Scotland and the north of England. The resultswould be the severance of these regions from the main currentof western ecclesiastical ideas. Conceivably these sentiments ofColumbanus never wholly died out in the Scottish kingdomof later history, whose kings were always apt to treat Romein a cavalier manner, laughing at interdicts and excommunications.A papal legate, in Bruce's time, was no more safe, ifhis errand was undesirable, than under John Knox, when MaryStuart wore the crown. “All the world errs, Rome and Jerusalemerr, only the Scoti and the Britones are in the right” is quotedas the opinion of the Scoti and Britones in 634. It appears thatScotland was naturally Protestant against Rome as soon asshe was Christian.

Meanwhile Rome was too strong, and in 664, in a synod heldat Whitby, St Wilfrid procured the acceptance of Roman asagainst Celtic doctrine in the questions then at issue. TheEnglish Christians overcame the Celtic divines of Iona, and in710 even in Pictland they came into the customs of westernChristianity. The church of the Celtic tribe thus yielded to thechurch of the Roman empire.

There followed an age of war in which the northern Englishwere routed at Nectan's mere, in Forfarshire, and driven southWars of Picts and Scots.of Forth. In the quarrels of Picts and of Scots ofArgyll, the Pictish king, Angus MacFergus (ob. 761),was victorious while in his prime, and then consolidatedPictland; but (802-839) the Scandinavian sea-roversbegan to hold large territories in Scotland, weakened the Picts, andmade easy their conquest by Kenneth MacAlpine of Kintyre, theking of the Dalriad Scots of Argyll. In 860 this Scot became kingof the Picts. Old legends represent him as having exterminatedthe Picts to the last man; and the Picts become, in populartradition, a mythical folk, hardly human, to whom great feats,including the building of Glasgow cathedral, are attributed,as the walls of Tiryns and Mycenae in Greece were traditionallyassigned to the energy of the Cyclopes. In 1814 Sir WalterScott met a dwarfish traveller in the Orkneys, whom the nativesregarded as a “Pecht” or Pict.

There was, of course, in fact, no extermination of the Picts,there was merely a change of dynasty, and alliance between Pictsand Scots, and that change was probably made in accordancewith Pictish customs of succession. Kenneth MacAlpine, thoughson of a Scottish father, was probably, though not certainly,a Pict on the mother's side, and in Pictland the crown was inheritedin the female line. The consequence was that whathad been Pictland came to be styled Scotland. The king ofAlban was a Scot in the paternal line. His conquest was notachieved at a blow, but his language, Gaelic, prevailed. Henceforth,despite the incursions of the Scandinavians, and partlybecause of them, the ecclesiastical and royal centres of life aremoved to the south and the east, though the king of Alban(Ardrigh) is not always master of his Ri, or subordinate princesof the seven provinces (Mortuath). His position is rather thatof an overlord, or Bretwalda, like Agamemnon's among theAchaean anaktes. He allies himself with Cymric Strathclyde,and by constant raids, and thanks to English weakness causedby Danish invasions, he extends his power over English Lothian.A marriage of the daughter of Kenneth MacAlpine with theWelsh prince of Strathclyde gives Scotland a footing in thatregion; in short, Scotland slowly advances towards and evenacross the historic border.

Through this contact with and actual tenure of English landsarose the various so-called “submissions” of kings of ScotlandConnexions with England.to the English crown. Thus (924) the English Chronicleasserts that Constantine, king of Scotland, “choseEdward King to father and lord.” It is impossible withhere to analyse the disputes as to whether, in Freeman'swords, “from this time to the 14th century” (he means, toBannockburn) “the vassalage of Scotland was an essential partof the public law of the Isle of Britain.” In fact this vassalagewas claimed at intervals by the English kings, and was admittedby Scottish kings for their lands in England; but as regardsScotland, was resisted in arms whenever opportunity arose.Each submission “held not long,” and the practical result wasthat 945) Malcolm acquired northern Strathclyde, “Cumberland,Galloway (?) and other districts,” while another Malcolm (1018)took Lothian, the northern part of Northumbria, after winning agreat battle at Carham on the Tweed.

The Celts, Scoto-Picts, of Alban, had thus annexed a greatEnglish-speaking region, which remained loyal to their dynasty,the more loyal from abhorrence of the Norman conquerors.The English or anglicized element in Scotland was never subjugatedby England, save during the few years of the CromwellianCommonwealth, and was supported (with occasional defections,and troubles caused by dynastic Celtic risings) by the Celticelement in the kingdom during the long struggle for nationalindependence. Scotland, in short, was too English to be conqueredby England. Poor, distracted, threatened on occasionby the Celts on her flank and rear, anglicized Scotland preferredher poverty with independence, to the prosperity and peacewhich England would have given, if unresisted, but never couldimpose by war. Her independence, her resistance, curbed theconquering ambitions of England abroad; and it went forsomething in securing the independence of France, and thesuccess of Protestantism, where it succeeded.

A sturdy and stoical temper was developed in the nation,which later helped parliamentary England in the struggle againstthe crown (1643-1648). Habits of foreign adventure and ofthrift were evolved, which were of advantage to the empire when,too long after the union of 1707, Scottish men were admitted toparticipate in its privileges and in its administration. Suchwere the consequences, in the sequel, of what seemed a disastrousevent, the absorption, by a Celtic kingdom, of a large and fertileregion of northern England.

The English element in the realm of Malcolm II. (1005-1034)was the conducting medium of western ideas which naturallyDynasty of Malcolm II.appealed to the interests and the ambitions of thatprince. On looking at the genealogical tree of thedynasty of Kenneth MacAlpine, we see that from thedate of his death (859) to the accession of Duncan onthe death of Malcolm II. (1034) no monarch is succeeded by hisown son or grandson. The same peculiarity appears in the listof the ancient kings of Rome, but these are entangled in mythology.In the dynasty of Kenneth the succession to the crownalternated thus: he was succeeded by his brother Donald, whowas followed. by his nephew, Kenneth's son, Constantine;Constantine's brother, Aodh, followed; and henceforth till 957,the kings were alternately chosen from the houses of Constantine and Aodh. It was the custom to appoint the successor to theking, his “Tanist,” at the same time as the king himself.Malcolm II. succeeded his own cousin, and, in accordance withthe native system of royal inheritance, should have been followedby the unnamed grandson of his own predecessor, Kenneth III.But Malcolm is accused of putting his legitimate successor outof the way, and thus securing the succession of his own grandson,Duncan, a son of his daughter, Bethoc, and her husband Crinan,protector of the abbey (or lay abbot) of Dunkeld. Malcolm thusset the example of advance to the western system of royalsuccessions, while in Crinan's lay tenure of the abbacy ofDunkeld we see the habit of appropriating ecclesiastical revenueswhich again became so common about a century before theReformation.

The innovation of Malcolm II. brought no peace but a sword.Boedhe, son of Kenneth III., left a daughter, Gruach, whoinherited the claims of the unnamed son of Boedhe slain by orderof Malcolm. Gruach married Gilcomgain, and had issue male,Lulach. After the death of Gilcomgain, Gruach weddedMacbeth, Mormaor (or earl in later style) of the province or subkingdomof Moray; Macbeth slew Duncan, and ruled as protectorof the legitimate claims of Lulach. From Lulach descendeda line of Celtic prétendants, and for a century the dynasty violentlyfounded by Malcolm II. was opposed by claimants of the bloodof Lulach, representing the Celtic customs adverse to the Englishand Norman ideas of the family in possession of the throne.Thus Celtic principles, as opposed to the western principles ofchartered feudalism, did not perish in Scotland without a longand severe struggle.

Meanwhile the dynasty of Malcolm II. was brought into closeconnexion with the English crown, and relied on English support,Malcolm Canmore.both before and after the Norman Conquest. Thegenius of Shakespeare, in his Macbeth, based onlegendary materials borrowed by Hollinshed fromHector Boece, and on the dynastic myth of the descent of theStuart kings from Banquo, has clouded the actual facts of history.To the Celts of Scotland, or at least to those of the great subkingshipor province of Moray, Duncan, not Macbeth, was theusurper. Duncan left sons, Malcolm, called Canmore (greathead), and Donald Ban; and in 1054 Siward, earl of Northumbria,defeated Macbeth, whether acting under the order ofEdward the Confessor in favour of the claims of Malcolm Canmore,or merely to punish Macbeth for sheltering Normanfugitives from the Confessor's court. The latter casus belli isthe more probable, though the chronicler, Florence of Worcester,asserts the protection of the sons of Duncan by England. Siwarddid not dethrone Macbeth, who was defeated and slain byMalcolm in 1057; Lulach fell obscurely in 1058, leaving claimantsto his rights, though these did not trouble much the crowned king,Malcolm Canmore. His long reign (1058-1093), and his secondmarriage (1068) with Margaret, sister of Edgar Ætheling, of theancient English royal blood—dispossessed by the NormanConqueror—intensified the sway of English ideas in Scotland,and increased the prepotency of the English element in political,social and ecclesiastical affairs. The anarchic state of Northumberlandand Cumberland after the Norman Conquest, whichdid not soon assimilate them, was Malcolm's opportunity. Heheld Cumberland (1070), and supported the claims of his brother-in-law,the Ætheling, while his relationship with Gospatric, earlof Northumbria, who retired into Scotland, gave him pretextsfor invading the north-east of England. William theConqueror's earl of Northumberland, Robert de Comines, wasslain at Durham in 1069, and the houses of Gospatric (earls ofDunbar and March) and of de Comines (the Comyns of Badenoch)were long puissant in Scottish history.

In 1072 William marched north and took a disputed homageof Malcolm at Abernethy, receiving as hostage the king's eldestson (by his first wife, Ingebiorge), named Duncan. As to thenature of Malcolm's homage, whether for Scotland (Freeman),or for manors and a subsidy in England (Robertson), historiansdisagree. Malcolm subdued “the King of Moray,” son of Lulach,who died in far Lochaber, though his family's claims to thecrown of Scotland did not lapse. In 1091 William Rufus renewedthe treaty of Abernethy with Malcolm and fortified Carlisle,thereby cutting Malcolm off from Cumberland; Malcolm wassummoned to meet Rufus at Gloucester; he went, but declinedto accept the jurisdiction of the Anglo-Norman peers, or to “doright” to Rufus, except on the frontier of the two realms,wherever he may have supposed that frontier to be. He wasan independent king, no vassal of England; as such (1093) heinvaded Northumberland, and was slain at Alnwick. His wife,St Margaret, did not survive her sorrow; she died in the castleof Edinburgh. Her reforms in church matters had apparentlymade her unpopular with the Celts, but under cover of a mist herbody was conveyed to and buried at Dunfermline.

Margaret, in fact, completed the reduction of the Celtic churchin Scotland to conformity with western Christendom, and somerecent presbyterian writers have not forgiven her. Beautiful,charitable and pious, she mollified the fierce manners of herhusband, who, according to her director and biographer, Turgot,acted as interpreter between her and the Gaelic-speaking ecclesiasticsat their conferences. Certain obscure religious usages,as regards Lent, the Communion, the non-observance of Sunday,non-communicating at Easter, and the Forbidden Degrees inmarriage, were brought into conformity with western Christendom.The last Celtic “bishop of Alban” died at this time;and when the dynasty of Malcolm Canmore was establishedafter an interval of turmoil, English ecclesiastics began to oustthe Celtic Culdees from St Andrews.

Malcolm would have been succeeded by his eldest son byMargaret, Edward, but he fell beside his father at Alnwick,and the succession was disputed between Duncan, son of Malcolmby his first wife; Edmund, eldest surviving son of Malcolm andMargaret; and Donald Ban, brother of Malcolm. The Celts(apart from the claimant of the blood of Lulach and the houseof Moray) placed Donald Ban on the throne; England supportedDuncan (by primogeniture Malcolm's heir, and a hostage inEngland); there was division of the kingdom till Duncan wasslain, and Edgar, son of Malcolm and Margaret, was restoredby Edgar Ætheling. He put out the eyes of his uncle, DonaldBan, and in unsaintly ways established the dynasty of theEnglish St Margaret and of the Celtic Malcolm. In 1103 Edgar'ssister, Eadgyth (Matilda), married Henry I.; the dynasty ofScotland now shows, by the names of its members, that theEnglish element in it was predominant. After Donald Ban noScottish sovereign bears a Gaelic Christian name save Malcolmthe Maiden; and perhaps no later king knew Gaelic.

Edgar, before his death, established his brother, Alexander I.,as king of Scotland, north of Forth and Clyde, with Edinburgh,Alexander I.which looks as if he considered Forth and Clyde thefrontier of what was legally Scotland; while hisyounger brother, David, as earl, ruled Lothian andCumbria. The reign of Alexander I. is marked by war withthe northern Celts, and by the introduction of English bishops ofSt Andrews, while the claims of the see of York to superiorityover the Scottish church were cleverly evaded at Glasgow(David's bishopric), as well as at St Andrews, where EnglishAugustinian canons were now established, to the prejudice ofthe Celtic Culdees. We observe that the chief peers of Alexander,who signed the charter of his monastery at Scone, areCelts—Heth, earl of Moray (husband of the daughter of Lulach),Malise of Strathearn, Dufa*gan of Fife, and Rory. After the deathof Alexander I. (1124) his successor, David I., is attended bymen of Norman names, Moreville, Umfraville, Somerville,Bruce, FitzAlan (the ancestor of the Stewards of Scotland, andhimself of an ancient Breton house), and so on.

David, educated in England by Normans, was the maker of aScotland whereof the anglicized part at least was now ruled byDavid I.Anglo-Norman feudalism and Anglo-Norman municipallaws in the burghs. Marrying Matilda, widow ofSimon de St Liz and heiress of Waltheof, David received theearldom of Huntingdon and supposed himself to have claimsover Northumberland, a cause of war for three generations.With Anglo-Norman aid he repelled a Celtic rising—the right of the claimants to represent the blood of Lulach is exquisitely complexand obscure in this case—but in the end David annexed tothe crown the great old sub-kingdom or province of Moray, andmade grants therein to English, Norman and Scottish followers.

Some of the most eminent of his southern allies could notstand by David when, in the reign of Stephen and in fidelity tothe cause of his niece, the empress Matilda, daughter of Henry I.,he invaded England. The towns of Northumberland andCumberland opened their gates, but he and Stephen met inconference at Durham, and David's son Henry, prince of Scotland,received the Honour of Huntingdon, Carlisle, Doncaster“and all that pertains to them” (1135). Stephen's relationswith Henry became unfriendly, and in January 1138, in pursuanceof Henry's claim to Northumberland, David again invaded. Aholy war against him was proclaimed by the archbishop ofYork, and on the 22nd of August 1138 Bruce, Baliol, and othersof David's southern allies renounced fealty to him, and he wasdefeated at the battle of the Standard, near Northallerton.David regained the shelter of Carlisle, a legate from Rome madepeace, and Prince Henry received the investiture of Northumberland,without the strong fortresses of Bamborough and Newcastle.

The anarchic weakness of the reign of Stephen enabled Davidto secure his hold of northern England to the Till, but the deathof his gallant and gentle son Henry, in June 1152, left the successionto his son, Malcolm the Maiden, then a child of ten, andDavid's death (24th of May 1153) exposed Scotland to thedangers of a royal minority.

David was, if any man was, the maker of Scotland. Thebishoprics erected by him, and his many Lowland abbeys,Social and political growth.Holyrood, Melrose, Dryburgh, Kelso, Jedburgh andothers, confirmed the freedom of the Scottish churchfrom the claims of the see of York, encouraged theimprovement of agriculture and endowed the countrywith beautiful examples of architecture. His charters to landownersand burghs (charters not being novel in Scotland, butnow more lavishly conferred) substituted written documents forthe unwritten customs of Celtic tenure, and converted theunder kings of provinces into earls of the king, while vice-comites,or sheriffs, administered local justice in the king's name, thoughCeltic custom still prevailed, under a thin veneer of law, in theCeltic regions, as in Galloway. Where Anglo-Normans obtainedlands in Moray and Renfrewshire, there seems to have been nodisplacement of the population: though a FitzAlan was dominantin Renfrewshire, the “good men,” or gentry, still bore Gaelicnames, till territorial names—“of” this or that place—cameinto use. In Lothian the place-names recorded in charters werealready, for the most part, English. Beneath the freeholdersand noblesse were free tenants, farmers paying rents, mainly inkind, and in services of labour and of war. Below these werethe nativi, attached to the land, and changing masters whenthe land changed hands. These nativi were gradually emancipated,partly through the influence of the church, partly foreconomic reasons, partly through the rule that any vileinbecame free after a year's residence in a burgh.

Thus Scotland never saw a jacquerie or servile rising. Theburghs were not actually the creations of David and William theLion, but the rights, duties and privileges which had graduallydeveloped in the towns were in the time of these kings codifiedand confirmed by charters; the towns had magistrates of theirown election, courts, and legalized open markets. The greaterburghers had a union, and made laws and regulations for municipalaffairs. In addition to royal burghs, there were burghsof nobles and of bishops, and the provostship was apt to become,by custom, almost hereditary in a local noble family, whichprotected the burgesses.

The germ of a parliament existed in the crown vassals and theroyal officials—chancellor, steward, constable, marischal and therest—with bishops, priors, earls, barons and other probi homines.The term tota communitas, “the whole community,” appears todenote all freeholders of gentle birth, who might be present atany important assembly for the discussion of national affairs.Burgesses do not yet receive mention as present on such occasions.

Scotland was as yet, and in fact remained, destitute of constitutionalhistory as it appears in England. There was, technicallyspeaking, no taxation. The king “lived on his own,” onrent of crown lands, feudal fines and aids, wardships, marriages,and the revenues of vacant bishoprics. Opposition used themechanism of conspiracies; and changes of administration wereeffected by the seizure of the king's person, especially during themany royal minorities.

In the matter of justice, royal succeeded to tribal authority.Offences were no longer against the individual and his kin, butagainst the king's peace, or against the peace of subordinateholders of courts—earls, thanes, barons, bishops and abbots.Compurgation, the ordeal, and trial by battle began to yield toVisnet, Jugement del Pais, the “good men of the country,”giving their verdict, while sentence was passed by the judge,sheriff, alderman or bailiff. “The Four Pleas of the Crown,”murder, arson, rape and robbery, were relegated to the king'scourt, under Alexander II. ruled by four grand justiciaries.While Roman law became the foundation of justice, a learnedclerk was needed as assessor and developed into the Lord justiceClerk. The vice-comes, or sheriff, as the king's direct representative,was the centre of justice for shires, and his judicaturetended to encroach on that of noble holders of courts. Royalauthority, sheriffs, juries and witnesses gradually supersededordeal, compurgation, and trial by battle, though even baronslong retained the right of “pit and gallows.”

In the matter of education, the monasteries had their schools,as had the parish churches, and there were high schools inthe burghs, and “song-schools.” From the time of David tothe death of Alexander III. Scotland was relatively peaceful,prosperous, and, in the south, anglicized, and was now in thegeneral movement of western civilization.

Malcolm the Maiden, before his early death in 1165, had putdown the menacing power of Somerled, lord of the Isles, a chiefapparently of mixed Celtic and Scandinavian blood, the founderof the great clan of Macdonald, whose chiefs, the lords of the Isles,were almost royal; Malcolm also subdued the Celts of Galloway,sometimes called Picts, but at this time Gaelic in speech.

Malcolm's brother, William the Lion (1165-1214), initiatedthe French alliance, fondly ascribed to the time of Charlemagne.William the Lion.William's desire was to seize Northumberland; in1173 he was allied with Henry, the rebellious son ofHenry II., himself in alliance with France. The captureof William at Alnwick, in July 1174, permitted a Celtic revoltin Galloway, and necessitated the Treaty of Falaise, by which forfifteen years Scotland was absolutely a fief of England, thoughthe clergy maintained their independence of the see of York,which was recognized by Pope Clement III. in 1188. In a quarrelof church and state the legate had been authorized to lay aninterdict on Scotland; William and the country merely disregardedit; and in 1191 a new pope absolved the Scottish king.The Celtic risings now were made in defence of the royal claimsof a descendant of Duncan, son of Malcolm Canmore; there werealso MacHeth claimants to the old rights of Lulach; Gallowayand the Celtic north were ceaselessly agitated.

After the death of Henry II. in 1189, Richard I. sold back toScotland all that his father had gained by the Treaty of Falaise,and William only became Richard's man—for all the lands forwhich his predecessors had been liegemen to the English kings,a vague phrase but implying that the king of Scotland was notliegeman for Scotland. To John, William did homage (1200)salvo jure sua. In 1209 he promised to purchase John's goodwillwith 15,000 merks, and gave hostages. Peace was preservedtill William died in 1214.

In the reign of his successor, Alexander II., the risings of Celticclaimants died out; he converted Argyll into a sheriffdom,Alexander III.and (1237) resigned the claims to Northumberland,in exchange for lands in the northern English countieswith a rental of £200 yearly. His death in 1249 leftthe crown to his son, Alexander III., a child of eight, in whoseminority began the practice by which parties among the nobilityseized the person of the sovereign. At the age of ten, Alexander, at York, wedded a child bride, Margaret, daughter of HenryIII.His boyhood was distracted by vague party strifes, but Henrydid not attempt to administer his country. In 1261 his queenbore, at Windsor, a daughter, Margaret, who later, marryingEric, king of Norway, became the mother of “The Maid ofNorway,” heiress of AlexanderIII.; the girl whose early deathleft the succession disputed, and opened the flood-gates of strife.Alexander (1260) won the western isles and the Isle of Man fromNorway, paying 4000 merks, and promising a yearly rent of100 merks. In 1279 Alexander did homage to EdwardI. atWestminster, salvo jure sua, and through the lips of Bruce, earlof Carrick. The homage was vague, “for the lands which heholds of the king of England,” or according to the Scottishversion, “saving my own kingdom.” On the death ofAlexander’s daughter, Margaret of Norway (1283), and of hisson, the prince of Scotland, without issue, the estates, at Scone,recognized Margaret’s infant daughter as rightful successor.At this assembly were Bruce, earl of Annandale; Robert deBrus, earl of Carrick (later king), his son; Comyn, earl of Buchan;John Baliol; and James the Steward of Scotland, of the houseof FitzAlan. On the 19th of March 1286 Alexander died,in consequence of a slip made by his horse on a cliff nearKinghorn during a night ride. His death was the great calamityof Scotland, and is lamented in a famous fragment of earlyScottish verse. The golden age of “The Kings of Peace” wasended.

The first step of the Scottish noblesse (mainly men of Normannames), after Alexander’s death, was to send a secret verbalmessage to Edward of England. Six custodians ofthe realm were then appointed, including the bishopof Glasgow (Wishart) and the bishop of St AndrewsBruce and Baliol parties.(Frazer). Presently the nobles formed two hostileparties, that of the Bruces and that of Baliol. The Bruce partytook up arms, and from the terms of their “band,” or agreement,obviously contemplated resistance to the rights of the Maid ofNorway, while declaring their fealty to Edward. In 1286–1289Scotland was on the verge of civil war. Edward procured a papaldispensation for the marriage of the Maid of Norway to his sonEdward; the Scots were glad to consent, and preliminarieswere adjusted by the Treaty of Birgham (18th of July 1290).All possible care was taken by the Scots to guard their nationalindependence, but Edward succeeded in inserting his favouriteclause, “saving always the rights of the King of England, whichbelonged, or ought to belong, to him.” As the Bruce factionhad asserted their fealty to Edward, the carefully patrioticattitude of the Scots may be ascribed to the two bishops, whodid not consistently live on this level. In August Edwardventured a claim to the castles of Scotland, which was notadmitted. By the 19th of August it was known that the childqueen had arrived in the Orkneys. An assembly was being heldat Scone; the Bruces did not appear, but, by the 7th of October,they arrived in arms, on a rumour of the queen’s death. Thebishop of St Andrews tells Edward of these events, and urgeshim to come to the border, to preserve peace. The bishop ofSt Andrews was for Baliol, he of Glasgow was for Bruce; andthe Baliol party, the seven earls complain, was ravaging Moray.These seven earls appear to represent the old rulers of the sevenprovinces of Pictland, and asserted ancient claims to elect aking. The Bruces placed themselves under Edward’s protection.In March 1291 he ordered search to be made for documentsbearing on his claims in the English clerical libraries, andsummoned his northern feudal levies to meet him at Norhamon Tweed, fully armed, in June. Hither he called the representativesof Scotland for the 10th of May; on the 2nd of Junethe eight claimants of the crown acknowledged him as LordParamount, despite a written protest of the communitas ofScotland; obscurely mentioned, and not easily to be understood.Edward took homage from all, including burgesses even,at Perth; his decision on the claims was deferred to the 2nd ofJune 1292 at Berwick.

The choice lay between descendants in the female line ofDavid of Huntingdon, younger brother of William the Lion.John Baliol was great-grandson of this David, through his eldestdaughter; Bruce the old was grandson of David through hissecond daughter, and pleaded that, by ScottishJohn Baliol crowned.custom, he was David’s heir. He also pleaded aselection of himself as successor by AlexanderII.,before the birth of AlexanderIII., but of this he had nodocumentary evidence. On the 17th of November 1292 Edwarddecided, against Scottish custom (if such custom really existed),in favour of Baliol, who did fealty, and, amidst cries of dissent,was crowned at Scone on the 26th of December.

Edward instantly began to summon John to his courts, evenon such puny matters as a wine-merchant’s disputed bill. Heappeared to aim at driving Baliol into rebellion andannexing his kingdom. In 1293 Edward refused toobey a similar summons from the king of France, andIntervention by England.in 1294 was fighting in Gascony. Baliol declined tofollow his standard and negotiated for a French alliance. Edwardordered Baliol’s English property to be confiscated; Baliolrenounced his fealty, and English merchants were massacredat Berwick. The Comyns failed in an attack on Carlisle, and(30th of March 1296) Edward took Berwick, seized WilliamDouglas (father of the Good Lord James), and massacred themale populace. A disorderly levy of Scots, appearing on thehills above Dunbar, left their strong position (like Leslie later)and were defeated with heavy loss. Robert Bruce was now ofEdward’s party; the nobles in a mass surrendered and Edwardwas unopposed. He seized the Black Rood, the coronation stoneof Scone, St Margaret’s fragment of the True Cross, and manydocuments; then he marched north as far as Elgin. TheRagman’s Roll contains sworn submissions of all probi hominesoutside of the western thoroughly Celtic region; and, in October1296, Edward returned to England, with Baliol his prisoner,leaving Scotland in the hands of the earl of Surrey as guardian,Cressingham as treasurer, and Ormsby as justiciary.,

Agitation at once broke out, and, when Edward went abroadin June 1297, he left orders for suppression of assemblies (conventiculae).Now Sir William Wallace came to thefront, a younger son of Sir Malcolm Wallace of Elderslie,near Paisley. The family probably came from England withWallace.the FitzAlans, the hereditary Stewards of Scotland. The Englishchroniclers call Wallace latro, “a brigand,” and he probablywas a leader of broken men, discontented with English rule.Sir Thomas Gray, son of an English gentleman wounded in arising at Lanark in May 1297, says that Wallace was chosenleader “by the commune of Scotland,” and began operations byslaying Heselrig, sheriff of Clydesdale, at Lanark. The Lanercostcontemporary chronicler writes that the bishop of Glasgow andthe Steward began the broil, and called in Wallace as the leadingbrigand in the country-side. Wallace, in fact, was a gentlemanof good education. Percy and Clifford led the English forces tosuppress him, and (7th July) made terms with the bishop, theSteward and Robert Bruce, who submitted; but Wallace heldout in Ettrick Forest. Sir William Douglas was kept a prisonerfor life, but Andrew Murray was out in Moray, with a largefollowing. The nobles who had submitted made delays in providinghostages, and Warenne marched from Berwick againstWallace, who, by September 1297, was north of Tay.

On hearing of Warenne’s advance, Wallace occupied the AbbeyCraig at Stirling, commanding the narrow bridge over the Forth;the Steward and Lennox; attempted pacific negotiations; abrawl occurred; and next day (11th of September) the Englishcrossed Stirling bridge, marched back again, recrossed, and wereattacked in deploying from the bridge. The general, Warenne,was old and feeble, Cressingham was hasty and confident;counsels were confused, the manner of attack was rash, andthe rout was sanguinary. Cressingham was slain, and Warennefled to Berwick. Pursuing his victory, Wallace ravaged Cumberland,most English writers say with savage ferocity; butHemingburgh represents Wallace as courteous on one occasion,and as confessing that his men were out of hand.

By the 29th of March 1298 Wallace appears, in a chartergranted by himself, as guardian of the kingdom, and, with Andrew Murray, as army leader in the name of King John—thatis, the captive Baliol. By June 1298 Robert Bruce is active inthe service of Edward, in Galloway. Edward was moving onScotland, and on the 22nd of July he found Wallace in force, andin a strong position, guarded by a morass, at Falkirk. TheScottish horsem*n fled from the English cavalry, but the archersof Ettrick fought and died round Sir John Stewart of Bonhill,brother of the Steward. The schiltrons, or squares of Scottishspearmen, were unbroken by Edward's cavalry, till their rankswere thinned by the English bowmen and could no longer keepout the charging horse. Wallace had made the error of riskinga general engagement in place of retiring into the hills; to dothis had, it is said, been his purpose, but Edward surprised him,and Wallace disappears from the leadership, while the waveringRobert Bruce appears in command, with the new bishop of StAndrews, Lamberton; Lord Soulis; and the younger Comyn,“the Red Comyn” of Badenoch. For want of supplies, Edwardreturned to England through Annandale, burning Bruce's castleof Lochmaben. Stirling still held out for England. There iscertain evidence of fierce dissensions in some way connected withWallace, among the Scottish leaders (August 1299). Wallacewas going to France; the Scottish leaders were reconciled to eachother, and took the castle of Stirling, which they entrusted to SirWilliam Oliphant. The Scottish cause seemed stronger thanever, under Bruce, the Steward, the Red Comyn and Lamberton,but in June 1300 Edward mustered a splendid array, and tookCarlaverock castle, but, on the arrival of the archbishop ofCanterbury with a letter from the pope approving of the Scottishcause, he granted a truce till Whitsuntide 1301. The barons ofEngland angrily refused to submit to the papal interference,but nothing decisive was attempted by Edward, though Brucehad again entered his service. By 1303 France (which doubtlesshad moved the pope to his action) deserted the Scots in the Treatyof Amiens, and Edward, with little opposition, overran Scotlandin 1303.

On the 9th of February 1304 Comyn with his companionssubmitted; they hunted Wallace, who had returned from thecontinent, and on the 24th of July the brave Oliphant surrenderedStirling on terms of a degrading nature. Among his officers wesee the names of Napier, Ramsay, Haliburton and Polwarth.

The noblest names of Scotland now took part in the pursuitof Wallace, who, as great in diplomacy as in war, had visitedRome (he had a safe-conduct of Philip of France to that end),and had at least secured a respite for his country. It seemsprobable that Wallace remained consistently loyal to Baliol,and hostile to the party of the wavering Bruce. He was takennear Glasgow, in his own country, and handed over to Englandby Sir John Menteith, sheriff of Dumbartonshire. Menteithcertainly received the blood-money, £100 yearly in land, andWallace, like Montrose, was hanged, disembowelled and quartered(at London, August 1305). Tradition attributes to Wallacestrength equal to his courage. His diplomacy in France proveshim to have been a man of education, and his honour is unimpeached;he never wavered, he never was liegeman of Edward,while bishops, nobles, and, above all, Bruce, perjured themselvesand turned their coats again and again. The martyr of animpossible loyalty, Wallace shares the, illustrious immortality ofthe great Montrose, and is by far the most popular hero of hiscountry's history. His victory at Stirling lit a fire which wasnever quenched, and began the long and cruel wars of independenceon which Scotland now entered.

For an hour there seemed as if there might be no raising of thefallen standard of St Andrew. Edward had not yet alienatedBruce.the country by cruelty, save in the case of Wallaceand the massacre of Berwick. He aimed at a unionof the two countries, and Scottish representatives were chosento sit in the English parliament. The laws of David I. were tobe revised. Eight justices were appointed, the sheriffs weremainly Scots of the kingdom; the bishop of St Andrews was oneof the Scottish representatives. The country was being reorganized,ruined churches and bridges were being rebuilt.The “commons,” the populace, were eager for peace; nobleslike Bruce were Edward's men. Bruce had been actively engagedin the siege of Stirling, and had succeeded his father asearl of Annandale. Yet, during the siege of Stirling (11th ofJune 1304), Bruce had entered into a secret band with Lamberton,bishop of St Andrews, for mutual aid. Early in February 1306he stabbed the Red Comyn before the high altar, in the churchof the Franciscans at Dumfries: Comyn's uncle was also slain,and Bruce, from his castle of Lochmaben, summoned his partyto arms; he was supported by the bishops of St Andrews andGlasgow, and by Sir James of Douglas, and was promptlycrowned by the countess of Buchan, representing the clanMacDuff, at Scone.

The cause of the slaying of Comyn is unknown; the two menhad long been at odds, but the evidence does not confirm thestory that Comyn had betrayed Bruce to Edward. It is moreprobable that Comyn merely refused to be drawn by Bruce intoa rising, and that the deed was unpremeditated. Be that as itmay, Bruce had now no place of repentance for a sacrilegioushomicide; he could not turn his tabard again; he was outlawed,forfeited and excommunicated. He had against him, not merelyEngland, but the kith and kin of Comyn, including the potentclan of MacDowall or MacDougall in Galloway and Lorne;on his own side he had his kinship, broken men, and theclergy of Scotland. Heedless of the excommunication theybacked him, and the preaching friars proclaimed his to be aholy war.

Bruce was warring in Galloway when, in May 1306, Aymer deValence led an English force to Perth. Bruce followed, andwas defeated in Methven wood; the prisoners of rank, hisbrother Nigel, and Atholl, with others, were hanged, and histwo bishops were presently secured. “All the Commons wenthim fra,” says Barbour, the poet chronicler. His queen, withLady Buchan and his sister, were imprisoned; and his castleswere held against him. He took to the heather, making for thewestern seas, hewing his way through the MacDougals at Tyndrumand marching over the mountains to Loch Lomond,which he crossed in a canoe. Sir Nial Campbell of Lochow,founder of the house of Argyll, secured shipping for him, andhe reached a castle of Macdonald of Islay (Angus Og), his ally, atDunaverty in Kintyre. He was driven to an isle off the Irishcoast; he thence joined Douglas in Arran, and by a suddencamisade he butchered the English cantoned under his own castleof Turnberry in Carrick. Two of his brothers were taken inGalloway and hanged at Carlisle, while King Edward, a dyingman, lay with a great army at Carlisle, or at the neighbouringabbey of Lanercost. Aymer de Valence, Butetourte, Clifford,and Mowbray were sent to net and “drive” the inner wilds ofGalloway, where Bruce lurked in the forests and caves of LochTrool and Loch Dungeon. Now he evaded them, now he andhis valiant brother Edward surprised and cut them up in detail,doing miracula, says a contemporary English chronicler.Douglas, an excellent guerilla leader, captured his own castleand butchered the English garrison. By the 15th of May 1307a writer of a letter from Forfar says that if Edward dies hiscause in Scotland is lost. Bruce slipped into Ayrshire anddefeated de Valence at London Hill; so Edward, a dying man,began to move against him with his whole force. He died (7thof July 1307) at Burgh-on-Sands, leaving his incompetent sonto ruin himself by his own follies, while ferocious hangings anddragging of men to death at horses' heels roused the ScottishCommons, and the men of Ettrick and Tweeddale, renouncingtheir new lord, de Valence, came over to the wandering knightwho stood for Scotland.

In the winter of 1307 and in 1308 Bruce ruined Buchan, aComyn territory, and won the castles of Aberdeen and Forfar,while Edward Bruce cleared the English out of Galloway. Inthe summer of 1309 Bruce fell on the MacDougals, on the rightside of the Awe, where it rushes from Loch Awe at the pass ofBrander, and, aided by a rear attack led by Douglas, seized thebridge and massacred the enemy. He then took the old royalcastle of Dunstaffnage and drove the chief, John of Lorne, intoEngland; Menteith, the captor of Wallace, changed sides, and Edward, after a feeble invasion in 1310, retreated from a landlaid desolate by the Scots.

In 1311 Bruce carried the war into England, seconded by themost audacious if the least skilled of his captains, his daringbrother Edward. For two years the north of England, as farsouth as Durham and Chester, was the prey of the Scots, andsome English counties secured themselves by paying an indemnity.The castles of Carlisle and Berwick, however, repelledthe assailants, but Perth was surprised, in January 1313, Brucehimself leading the advance. Randolph, earl of Murray, tookthe chief hold in the country, Edinburgh castle, by scaling theprecipitous rock to the north, while a feigned attack was beingmade on the accessible southern front. In short almost everycastle held by the English was captured, and the fortificationswere destroyed.

In the spring of 1313 Edward Bruce invested Stirling castle,the key of Scotland; on midsummer day he accepted a pactfor the surrender of the place if not relieved within a year.This was a heedless piece of chivalry on Edward's part. Itgave the English king, less opposed by his nobles since hisfavourite, Gaveston, was slain, time to muster a large army,which Bruce must meet, if at all, in the open field. Edward II.not only summoned English but Irish levies, and knights ofHainault, Bretagne, Gascony and Aquitaine crowded to hisstandard. The estimates of numbers by the old writers areusually much exaggerated; modern authorities reckon KingEdward's army at 50,000 of whom 10,000 were cavalry. Oldaccounts put the infantry at 100,000, the horsem*n at 40,000.Bruce had but five hundred horse, under Keith the Marischal;Douglas led the levies of his own district and Ettrick Forest;Randolph commanded the men of Moray; Walter Steward,those of the south-western shires; and Angus Og brought tothe Scottish standard the light-footed men of the Isles, and,probably, of Lochaber, Moidart, and the western coast in general.Bruce commanded the people of Carrick and probably of hisold earldom, Annandale.

Moving out from the Torwood forest, Bruce arrayed his forceso as to guard either the Roman road through St Ninians, orBannockburnthe way through the Carse, which was then studdedwith marshes and small lakes. The former routeappeared to be chosen by the English, and Brucestationed his army in a position where it was defended by acleugh, or ravine of the Bannockburn, and by two morassesbetween which was a practicable but narrow neck of firm land.Randolph, on Bruce's left, was to guard against a rush of Englishcavalry to relieve Stirling castle. The Macdonald tradition isthat their clan was on the right wing, under Angus Og; the oldaccounts place them with Bruce's reserves. Three hundredEnglish horsem*n appear to have stolen round Randolph'sflank unseen by him, and Bruce is said to have warned him that“a rose had fallen from his chaplet.” Randolph advanced withhis footmen against the English horse, who unwarily acceptedhis challenge and were defeated by his spearmen. WhileEdward's army paused, Bruce, mounted on a palfrey, wasattacked by Sir Henry Bohun. Bruce evaded his spear andslew him with an axe stroke; the axe shaft broke in his hand.The omens were evil for England; and her forces bivouacked,reserving the general attack for the following day. Bruce issaid to have proposed retreat and a guerilla war, but his councilwere for fighting.

In the general engagement, next day, the English cavalrycould not break the “impenetrable wood” of the Scottishspearmen, who, however, were galled by the arrows of theEnglish bowmen, which had broken their formation at Falkirk.Bruce bade Keith, with his five hundred horse, charge the archersin flank: apparently they were unprotected by pikes; theywere broken, and the great peril passed away. The Scottisharchers charged with axe in hand, and the Scottish right frontwas protected by a mass of fallen English horses and fightingmen; the rear ranks of the English, clogged and crowded,could not reach the foe, and the line of Scottish spears pressedsteadily and slowly forward. Now a panic was caused by arush of camp followers from the “gillie's hill”: the Englishwavered; Bruce commanded an advance of his whole line:the English rout was general, and, had Bruce possessed cavalry,few would have escaped. The Bannockburn was choked withthe fallen, and it was only by hard spurring that Edward andhis guards reached Dunbar, whence he sailed to Berwick. Animmense booty and many ransoms rewarded the Scots, whosevictory was one of the decisive battles of the world. It waswon by the generalship of Bruce and his captains; by the excellenceof his position, by the steadiness of his men, and, obviously,by the reckless fury of the English cavalry, and by the folly whichleft their archers open to defeat by the Marischal's handful ofhorse (24th of June 1314).

Bruce now swept the country, but Carlisle he could not take.He married his daughter, Marjory, to the Steward, and from thisunion came the Stewart (Stuart) dynasty. The invasion ofIreland by Edward Bruce failed (1315-1318), and Edward fellin battle: after which (1318) parliament settled the crown inthe Steward's line, failing male descendants of Robert Bruce.He disdained the pope's efforts to make peace with England,except on terms of absolute independence for his country. Hetook and held Berwick, and (14th of October 1322) defeatedEdward with heavy loss near Byland Abbey in Yorkshire,where the highlanders scaled a cliff and drove the English froma formidable position. A thirteen years' truce was arrangedin 1323: the pope removed his excommunication from Bruce,and acknowledged him as king: a son, David, was born to himin 1324.

The murder of Edward II. (1327) was followed by successfulScottish raids in the north, and in May 1328 the Treaty ofBruce's death and work.Northampton sealed the triumph of Scotland. DavidBruce was to marry Joanna of England: Bruce wasrecognized as king: former owners of forfeited lands,with three exceptions, were not to be restored. Thisled, after Bruce's death, to an invasion by the disinheritedEnglish ci-devant lords of lands in Scotland, and to a long warfrom which Scotland was only “saved as by fire.” Bruce died,outworn by war and hardships, on the 7th of June 1329: hisbody was buried in Dunfermline abbey; his heart, whichDouglas was bearing to the Holy Land, was brought home again,after Douglas's chivalrous death in battle with the Moors inSpain.

Bruce, previously so shifty, had never wavered or turnedback since he smote the Red Comyn at Dumfries. In face ofobstacles apparently insurmountable he had made a nation,consolidating all the forces which Wallace had stirred into life.There is, perhaps, nothing in the history of medieval Europewhich so closely resembles a voice from ancient Greece as thereply of the nobles and the whole communitas of Scotland to thepope (parliament of Aberbrothock, 6th of April 1320). Theywill be liegemen of Bruce only so long as he resists England.As long as a hundred Scots are left alive, they will continue thewar for freedom, “which no good man loses save with his life.”They show that the barbarities of Edward I. (which he regardedas reprisals) have made it eternally impossible for Scotlandto yield to an English king. Their excommunication by Romedoes not trouble them at all. They are free from Rome, fromEngland, from all alien powers. Henceforth, through good andevil fortune, this was the spirit of the nation.

The most important point in constitutional history was theaction of a parliament at Cambuskenneth, near Stirling, in 1326.The representatives of the burghs were present: they made agrant of all tenths to the king during his life; while they covenantedwith him that he should collect no other taxes and shouldexercise the privileges of prisiae et cariagia with moderation.The long wars had been adverse to commerce, for which ransomsand the booty of Bannockburn made inadequate compensation.But the great abbey church of St Andrews was, none the less,completed, to stand for some two hundred and forty years, andwas dedicated in the presence of Bruce.

The brilliant and sustained effort which made Scotland independentwas almost paralysed by the deaths of Bruce and the Good Sir James of Douglas, during the minority of David II.(crowned, 24th of November 1331). The disinherited lords,David II.
Struggle with Edward Baliol.
deprived of their lands by Bruce, were headed byEdward Baliol, claiming the crown of Scotland as heirof John Baliol, and secretly backed by England.Randolph died in July 1332, and in August Edward Baliol,with the disinherited lord of Liddesdale, and Beaumont,the disinherited earl of Buchan, and the English claimant ofthe earldom of Atholl, landed a filibustering force in Forfarshire.They were opposed by the new regent of Scotland, the earl ofMar, who was routed with heavy loss and was slain, at Dupplin,on the 12th of August 1332. The English owed the victory totheir archers, whose shafts rolled up a courageous charge by theScots. Edward Baliol was enabled to seize and fortify Perthand was crowned at Scone, as Edward I. of Scotland (24th ofSeptember). On the 23rd of November, at Roxburgh, Baliolacknowledged Edward III. as his liege lord and promised tosurrender Berwick and large lands in southern Scotland. Thehands on the clock were then put back to the time of the reignof John Baliol. But the earl of Murray, son of Randolph, andArchibald, youngest brother of the Good Lord James of Douglas,surprised Baliol at Annan and drove him, half clad, into England.

The struggle was now (1333) for Berwick, which was besiegedby Edward III. Archibald Douglas tried to relieve it, just asRelations with Edward III.Edward II. strove to relieve Stirling, and found hisBannockburn on Halidon hill (19th of July 1333),where he was routed and slain, with many of theleaders of the Scots. Scotland was never again tohold Berwick for any length of time: meanwhile a few castlesstood out, but the child king was sent over to France for safekeeping. A parliament held by Baliol at Edinburgh (February1334) ratified the promises made by him to England at Roxburgh:the disinherited lords were in power and many patriotsturned their coats. At Newcastle on the 12th of July Baliolsurrendered to Edward III. the southern shires of Scotlandwith their castles: he had already done homage for the wholeof Scotland; and Edward III. would have succeeded whereEdward I. failed, had not the partisans of Baliol come to deadlyfeud over matters of their private interests and ambitions.Some took part with Sir Andrew Murray, son of a companionof Wallace, and with the Steward, who contrived to occupythe castle of Dunbarton, the key of western Scotland. Thesetwo men, with Campbell of Loch Awe, and Randolph's son,the earl of Moray, held up the national standard and werejoined by the English claimant of the earldom of Atholl.

Randolph's daughter, too, the famous Black Agnes of Dunbar,brought over her wavering husband, the earl of March, to theside of the patriots, and there was a war of partisans, whileEdward III. again and again invaded and desolated southernScotland. In 1335-1336 the English party prevailed, andpatriots began to come into the English peace: Atholl againchanged his side, but the sister of Bruce held out in Kildrummiecastle. Andrew Murray, March and a Douglas, the BlackKnight of Liddesdale, went to her relief and slew Atholl: EdwardIII. (1336) again waged a victorious summer campaign, fromPerth as his base, and again found Scottish resistance revive inwinter. His rupture with France in October 1337, caused by hisclaims to the French crown, tended to withdraw his attentionfrom Scotland, where, though the staunch Sir Andrew Murraydied, Black Agnes drove the English besiegers from Dunbar(1338), while the Knight of Liddesdale recovered Perth. By1342 Roxburgh, Stirling and Edinburgh castles were again inScottish hands, though the Knight of Liddesdale captured andstarved to death, in Hermitage castle, his gallant companion inarms, Sir Alexander Ramsay, who had relieved the garrison ofDunbar. With this Douglas, Knight of Liddesdale, a ruffianand a traitor, may be said to begin the long struggle betweenhis too powerful house and the crown.

King David, a lad of eighteen, had returned from France andhad removed this Douglas from the sheriffdom of Teviotdale,superseding him by Alexander Ramsay. Douglas revengedhimself on Ramsay, as we have seen, and though David wasobliged to overlook the crime, the Knight of Liddesdale henceforthwas not to be trusted as loyal against England. It isDavid's captivity.probable that he was intriguing for Baliol's restoration,and he certainly was securing the favour of Edward III.An ill-kept truce of three years ended in October1346, when David attempted to lead the whole force of hisrealm, including the levies of John, Lord of the Isles, and of thewestern Celts in general, against England. As the Celts marchedsouth the earl of Ross slew Ronald Macdonald, whose inheritancewas claimed by John of the Isles. As a result, the Islesmenwent home: David, however, crossed the border, plunderingand burning the marches. Near Durham he came into touchwith English levies under Henry Percy and the archbishop ofYork. David was a knight of the French school of late chivalry:he was not a general like Bruce or Randolph. In this affair ofNeville's Cross (17th of October 1346) he copied the mistakesof Edward II. at Bannockburn; his crowded division was brokenby the English archers, and the king himself was wounded andcaptured. Moray, the last male representative of Randolph,with the Constable and Earl Marischal of Scotland, was slain;the Steward made his escape: and, henceforth, the childlessDavid regarded his heir, the Steward, with jealousy and suspicion.The Steward, during the king's captivity, was regent, and theDouglas of Liddesdale (the son of Archibald and nephew of theGood Lord James) drove the English out of Douglasdale,Teviotdale and the forest of Ettrick. A truce till 1354 wasarranged between England, France and Scotland, while thecountry strove to raise the royal ransom, and David, whopreferred English ways to those of his own kingdom, acknowledgedEdward III. as his paramount. It became David'spolicy to secure his own life interest on Scotland, while thecrown, on his decease, should go to one of the English royalfamily. The more loyal William Douglas, in 1353, slew hiskinsman, the shifty Knight of Liddesdale, on the braes ofYarrow, and a fragment of one of the oldest Scottish balladsdeplores his fall.

In July 1354 an arrangement as to David's ransom was made:his price was 90,000 merks sterling (for the coinage of ScotlandDavid's agreement with Edward.was already beginning to be debased). Negotiationswere interrupted by the arrival of French reinforcementsin men and gold: Berwick was recaptured, onlyto be recovered by England in 1356. In the same yearEdward Baliol, after handing over his crown and the royalty ofScotland to Edward III., retired from active life, and Edwardwasted the south in the raid of “The Burned Candlemas.” InOctober 1357 David was permitted to return to Scotland, givinghostages and promising 100,000 merks in ten yearly payments.The country, crushed by inevitable taxation, was discontented,and not reconciled by Edward's grant of commercial privileges.In May 1363 David put down a rising headed by the Steward,and then, in October, went to London, where he and the earl ofDouglas made arrangements by which the countries were to beunited under Edward III. if David died childless. Scotlandwas to be forgiven the ransom, receive the Stone of Scone andretain its independent title as a kingdom: her parliamentswere to be held within her own borders; her governors andmagistrates were to be Scots, freedom of trade was guaranteed,and the earl of Douglas was to be restored to his English estates,or to an equivalent.

This scheme would have saved Scotland from centuries of warand from a Stewart dynasty: there would have been a union ofThe union rejected by Scotland.the crowns, as under James VI.; or (by an alternativeplan of November, December 1363) a son of the kingof England, not Edward III. himself, would succeedto David. In March 1364 David laid the projectsbefore a parliament at Scone, which firmly refused its assent.Possibly David had, as one motive for his scheme, the verydubious legitimacy of the children of the Steward, a probablecause of civil war and a disputed succession. He had alsoprivate reasons for disliking the Steward, who was on bad termswith the widow, Margaret Logie (by birth a Drummond), whomDavid had married on the death of his first wife. The country, resolved to stand by the Steward and the blood of Bruce, preferredthe heavy taxation and the turbulence inevitable undersuch a king as David to union under an English prince. Onthe 20th of June 1365 Edward granted a four years' truce, withthe ransom to be paid in yearly instalments of £4000. Butthe necessary taxation was resisted by various nobles, includingJohn of the Isles (1368), who had married a daughter of theSteward. John was in arms, divisions and distress were everywhere,a famine prevailed, and Scotland had to face the prospectof yielding to Edward, when, in 1369, that prince proclaimedhimself king of France, and, having his hands full of war, madea fourteen years' truce with his northern neighbour.

David was now free to subdue John of the Isles, to repudiateall his own debts contracted before 1368, and to make preparationsfor a crusade. From this crowning folly death deliveredhim on the 22nd of February 1371. The whole of his ransomwas never paid, and his absurdities and misfortunes gave theEstates opportunity to strengthen their constitutional position.They established the rule that no official should put in executionany royal warrant “against the statutes and common form oflaw.” The reign also saw the introduction of the committees,“elected by the Commons and the other Estates,” which didthe actual business of parliament, thus saving time and expenseto the members. But these committees, later known as the Lordsof the Articles, were to exercise almost the full powers of parliamentin accordance with the desires of the crown, or of thedominant faction, and they were among the grievances abolishedafter the revolution of 1688-1689. The whole reign was aperiod of wasteful turmoil, of party strife, of treachery, ofreaction. But the promise of peace and prosperity in exchangefor absolute independence was rejected with all the old resolution;and the freedom which a Bruce desired to sell was retained bythe first of the Stewart line, Robert II.; for Mr Froude erredin alleging that James I. was the first Stewart king of Scotland.

Robert II., the grandson of Robert Bruce, had lived hard, andwhen he came to the throne, was weary of fighting and of politics.Stuart line: Robert II.Nothing proves more clearly the firm adherence of thenation to the blood of Bruce, and the parliamentarysettlement of the crown in his female line, than theundisputed acceptance of the Steward's children asheirs to the throne. Several of them had been born to Robert'smistress, Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan, before a papal dispensationpermitted, in 1349, a marriage which the canon law seemedto render impossible. The pope might have said, like a laterpontiff on another day, “remittimus irremissibile.” By a secondmarriage, undeniably legal, Robert had a family whose claimswere not permitted to give trouble at his accession, though theearl of Douglas, the fellow conspirator of David II., would havecaused difficulties if he had possessed the power. His eldest son,the earl who fell at Otterburn, was married to Robert's daughter,Isabella, but by her had no issue. The new prince of Scotland,John (an unlucky name, later changed to Robert), was a fainéant:the king's second son, Robert, earl of Fife (later first duke ofAlbany), was a man of energy and ambition, while the characterof the third, Alexander, is expressed in his sobriquet, “The Wolfof Badenoch.”

When the new reign opened, Edward III. made no secret ofhis claims to be king of Scotland, and the southern regions werestill in English hands. From 1372 to 1383 Scotland was in trucewith England; and Robert II. had no desire to aid France andaccept from Rome a dispensation from the oaths of truce. Thesouthern nobles, under the Douglases and March, kept up a semi-publicfeud with the Percy on the border, after the accession ofRichard II., still a child, and, piece by piece Scottish territorywas recovered, mainly in Teviotdale and Liddesdale. In 1380and 1381, Lancaster, uncle of Richard II., arranged truces, butdifficulties were caused by the late proclamation, in Scotland, ofa truce made with her ally, France, on the 26th of January 1384.With the tidings of this truce arrived, in April, a body of Frenchknights who desired to enjoy fighting, and though dates areobscure they seem to have caused, by a raid in April, a retaliatoryforay by the Percies in May or June. The king smoothed mattersover, but in 1385 a great band of French knights landed inScotland, forced the king's hand, and penetrated England as faras Morpeth. Here they might have had lighting enough, asLancaster led a force against them, while Richard II. followedwith a large army. But Douglas, to the disgust of the French,refused battle, and allowed the English to do what mischiefcould be done in a thrice stripped country. The French deemedthe Scots shabby, poor and avaricious: their grooms were killedby the peasantry when they went foraging: the nobles werechurlish and inhospitable.

In August 1388 Douglas led the famous raid as far as Alnwickcastle, which culminated in the battle of Otterburn, fought bymoonlight. Here Douglas fell in the thickest of the melée, buthis death was concealed and Henry Percy, with many otherEnglish knights, were captured and held to heavy ransom(15th of August 1388). These battles were fought in the spiritof chivalry, and were followed, in 1389, by a three years' truce.

The second son of King Robert, Albany, was appointedgovernor, his father being in ill-health and dying in 1390. HeRobert III.was succeeded (14th of August 1390) by his sonRobert III., whose own health was so bad that, inthe previous year, his brother Albany had been preferredbefore him as governor. The reign of a weakling was full ofanarchy, complicated by the feud between his eldest son, thewayward duke of Rothesay, and his ambitious brother, nowduke of Albany. These two are the first dukes in Scotland.There was peace with England till the death of Richard II. in1399, and till the parliament of January 1399 Albany stillundertook the duties of the king.

Here commenced the tragedy of the Stuarts and of Scotland.For nearly two centuries each reign began with a long royalRegency rule.minority, increasing the power and multiplying thefeuds of the nobles. The remainder of each reign was,therefore, a struggle to re-establish the central power, astruggle in which cruel deeds were done on all sides. Meanwhile,now England, now France, secured the alliance of the men inpower, or out of power, and threatened the independence of thekingdom. The cause of the miseries of these two unhappycenturies was beyond human control: no Stuart sovereign, afterRobert II., escaped from the inevitable evils of a long minority,while Robert II. himself was as weak as any child. Under hisnominal rule, the Celts of the north and west, in 1385, becametroublesome, while Robert's son, the Wolf of Badenoch, who wasjusticiary, with his own wild sons, rather fanned than extinguishedthe flames. They slew the sheriff of Angus (1391-1392)in a battle, and then two clan-confederacies, quarrelling amongthemselves, put their cause to the ordeal of fight, in the famouscombat of thirty against thirty, on the Inch of Perth (see Scott'sFair Maid of Perth). Though we know the cost of fencing thelists, from entries in the treasury accounts, we are ignorant ofthe cause of the quarrel, and even of the clans engaged. Thenames are diversely given, but probably the combat was only oneincident in the long wars of the Camerons with the great ClanChattan confederacy. In 1397, at Stirling, the Estates denouncedthe anarchy “through all the kingdom,” and, in 1398-1399, werefull of grievances arising from universal misgovernment. Bythis parliament, David, prince of Scotland and duke of Rothesay,was made regent for three years; with his uncle, duke of Albany,as his coadjutor. Peace between Albany and the waywardRothesay was impossible, and Rothesay, by breaking troth withthe daughter of the earl of March, and marrying a daughter ofthe third earl of Douglas, added a fresh feud to the generalconfusion.

Meanwhile Scotland, to vex Henry IV., adopted the causeof the “Mammet,” the pretender to be Richard II. Thisenigmatic personage appeared in Islay, and rather had hispretences thrust on him than assumed them; he was half-witted.Meanwhile the insult to March caused him to seek alliance withHenry IV., who crossed the border—the last English king to doso—and appeared before Edinburgh castle. Rothesay held it inhis contempt, and, as Albany declined a battle in the open,Henry returned with nothing gained.

In 1400 Albany, and the 4th earl of Douglas (brother-in-lawof the duke of Rothesay), confessed before the Estates that theyhad arrested the prince, and were cleared of the guilt of his subsequentdeath. They kept him, first in the castle of St Andrews,and then at Falkland, where he perished; some said of dysentery,others, of starvation.

Restored to the regency, Albany permitted his son, Murdoch,with Douglas, to retort on a successful raid by Percy and thetraitor March. They were defeated by English archery, as usual,at Homildon hill: Murdoch and Douglas were captured. Percy,dissatisfied with Henry's treatment of him in the matter ofransoms, led an army into Scotland which was to have trysted atco*cklaw with Albany and the whole forces of the realm, andinvaded England. But Douglas and Percy left co*cklaw beforeAlbany came up, and hurried to join hands with the Welsh rebel,Glendower. The hostile forces met at Shrewsbury, and Shakespearehas made the result immortal. Percy was slain; Douglaswas the prisoner of England.

The young prince of Scotland, the first James, was on his wayto seek safety in France, during an interval of truce, but wasJames I.captured on the high seas by English cruisers. (Thedates are obscure, but James was in the Tower byFebruary-March 1405-1406.) His father's death followed(4th of April 1406). Albany sent, within a year, envoys toplead for his release; and again, in 1409, but vainly. Aninterval of peace occurred, among a series of border battles, andthe heresy of Lollardy was attacked by the clergy; Resby, whohad been a priest in England, was burned in 1407 at Perth.The embers of Lollardy, not extinguished by the new centralfountain of learning, the university of St Andrews, smoulderedin the west till the Reformation.

“The wicked blood of the Isles,” the Macdonalds, descendantsof island kings, now made alliance with England; Donald,eldest son of the Lord of the Isles, having an unsatisfied claim onthe earldom of Ross, which Albany strove to keep in his ownfamily. The greatest of highland hosts met at Ardtornish castle,now a ruin on the sound of Mull: they marched inland and north,defeated the Mackays of Sutherland and were promised theplunder of Aberdeen. The earl of Mar, with a small force ofheavily-armoured lowland Cavaliers, stopped and scattered theplaided Gael at Harlaw (1411). The knights lost heavily, butDonald did not plunder Aberdeen (see Elspeth's ballad ofHarlaw, in The Antiquary). Next year Albany received thesubmission of Donald at Lochgilp in Knapdale, and the Celtswere, for the moment, useless to their allies of England.

Time went on: Albany's son, Murdoch, was set free, but in1410 the captive King James much resented Albany's neglectof himself. His letter is written in Scots. Albany died in 1420;his regency, with that of his son Murdoch, produced the anarchywhich James, when free, combated at the cost of his life. MeanwhileFrance demanded and received auxiliaries from Scotland,who fought gloriously for French freedom. Their great victory,where the duke of Clarence fell, was at Baugé Bridge (1421),where the Stewarts and Kennedys, under Sir Hugh, were speciallydistinguished. In 1424 the Scots, with the earl of Buchan andthe earl of Douglas, were almost exterminated at Verneuil,some five months after King James, already affianced to theLady Jane Beaufort, was released. He never paid his ransom,and his noble hostages lived and died south of Tweed: one causeof his unpopularity.

Tradition tells that James vowed “to make the key keep thecastle, and the bush keep the cow,” even though he “lived adog's life” in the endeavour. His reign was a struggle againstanarchy and in the cause of the poor and weak. He instantlyarrested Murdoch, son of Albany, and Fleming of Cumbernauld,met parliament, dismissed it, retaining a committee (“the Lordsof the Articles”), and took measures with landlords, who mustdisplay their charters; appointed an inquest into lay and clericalproperty; and imposed taxes to defray his ransom. The moneycould not be collected, and the edicts against private wars andthe maintenance of armed retainers were hard to enforce. Jamesnext arrested Lennox and that Sir Robert Graham whose feudproved fatal to the king. In March 1425 he met his secondparliament, relying on a council of barons with no great earlbut Mar. He next arrested Albany's secretary and the LordMontgomery: the story, accepted by our historians, that healso seized twenty-six notables, has been finally disproved bySir James Ramsay. No Scottish king ever embarked on such acoup d'état as the arrest of “the whole Scottish House of Lords,”and Knox, who attributes a much, larger design to James V.,must have been deceived by rumour. Albany (Murdoch), hisson, and Lennox, were tried and executed: Albany's son,James, in revenge burned Dumbarton. The king appears tohave been avenging his private wrongs, or destroying the threenobles pour encourager les autres. Parliament now insisted oninquisition for heretics: an act was passed (which never tookeffect) against “bands” or private leagues among the nobles:the Covenant was called “the great band,” by Cavaliers in daysto come. More important was the establishment of a new courtof justice, the court of Session, to sit thrice in the year. Yeomenwere bidden to practise archery, to which they much preferredfootball and golf.

The highlanders were next handled as the lowlanders hadbeen; a parliament was held at Inverness and a number ofchiefs who attended were seized, imprisoned or executed. TheLord of the Isles, when released, burned Inverness (1429), but,being pursued, he was deserted by Clan Chattan and ClanCameron (probably the clans represented on the ordeal of battleon the Inch of Perth). The Lord of the Isles made submission,but Donald Balloch, his cousin, defeated Mar near Inverlochy,later fled to Ireland, and was reported dead, though he lived togive trouble. James was unjustly repressing highland anarchy:from the highlands came his bane.

James now granted his daughter, a child, to the Dauphin,later Louis XI.; but, as Jeanne d'Arc said, “the daughter of theking of Scotland could not save Orleans,” then (1428-1429)besieged in a desultory manner by the English. In February1429 the Scots under the oriflamme were cut to pieces in “TheBattle of the Herrings” at Rouvray. The surviving Scots foughtunder Jeanne d'Arc till her last success, at Lagny, under SirHugh Kennedy of Ardstinchar in Ayrshire, but James (May,June 1429) made a treaty of peace with Cardinal Beaufort, whichenabled Beaufort to send large reinforcements into Paris, wherethe Maid, deserted by Charles VII., failed a few months later.

In October 1430 was born the prince destined to be James II.The king and the Estates were curtailing the judicial privilegesand jurisdiction of the clergy; and the anti-pope, Peter de Luna,quarrelled with the country on this ground. Scotland thendeserted his cause for that of Martin V., but quarrels betweenchurch and state did not cease, and a legate arrived to settlethe dispute a few days before the king's murder. James hadalready threatened the Benedictines and Augustines for “impudentlyabandoning religious conduct,” and had founded theCarthusian monastery in Perth, that the Carthusians might offera better example. A reformation by the state seemed at hand,but the religious orders fell deeper in odium and contempt duringthe next hundred and thirty years. Doctrine, too, was endangeredby heretics, one of whom, a Hussite named PaulCrawar, was burned at Perth in 1433.

In 1427 James seized, as a male fee, the earldom of Strathearn,gave the earl by female descent the title of Menteith, and senthim to England as a hostage for his ransom. He was nephew ofthe Sir Robert Graham whom James had arrested at the beginningof his reign: Graham's anger was thus rekindled. Theearls of Mar and March also lost their lands, on one pretext oranother: James's policy was plainly to break the power of thenobles.

The English translation (1440) of a lost contemporary Latinhistory of the events avers that Sir Robert Graham rose inDeath of James I.parliament, denounced James as a tyrant and calledon the barons to seize their king: Graham was taken,was banished from court, was confiscated and fled tothe Atholl hills. He thence intrigued with the old earl of Atholl(heir to the crown if the ancestors of James by Robert II. and Elizabeth Muir were illegitimate), and he drew into theconspiracy the king's chamberlain, Atholl's grandson. By hisaid 300 highlanders were brought into the monastery of theBlack Friars in Perth, where the king was keeping the Christmasof 1436, and there they slew James, who had fled into a vault.The conspirators were seized and tortured to death with unheard-ofcruelties, but lawlessness had won the battle. James hadfailed, practically, even in his effort (1427-1428) to anglicizeparliament, by introducing the representative system; two“wise men” were to be chosen by each sheriffdom, and twoHouses were to take the place of the one House in which allEstates were wont to meet. But constituents were averse to payingtheir members, no Speaker was elected, the reform never cameinto being. Till the Union, all estates sat in one room duringparliament. The court of session was the most valuable andpermanent of James's innovations, and his poem “The King'sQuhair” attests his real genius. He had attempted to reformthe country too hurriedly; and treachery, by all accounts, wasone of his methods. He left a child as king, and the old roundof anarchy began again; oppression, murder, feud, faction andprivate war. History repeats itself, and the evil practices werechecked, not by the Reformation, but by the increased resourcesand entire safety enjoyed by James VI. when he succeeded tothe crown of England.

Space forbids a record of the faction fights in the reign ofJames II. Coming to the crown at the age of seven, he wasJames II.used like the Great Seal, as a sanction of authorityand passed from one party to another of the nobles,as each chanced to be the more dexterous or powerful (crowned25th of March 1437). The Crichtons and Livingstones held theking till the earl of Douglas died, being succeeded by his son,a boy. The queen-mother married Sir James Stewart of Lorne,and their sons, Buchan and Atholl, mixed in the confusedintrigues of the reign of James III., but the queen was treatedwith scant courtesy by the rival parties. From them the youngearl Douglas and duc de Touraine, the most powerful man inScotland, stood apart, sullenly watching an unprecedented stateof anarchy. Livingstone and Crichton, previously foes, invitedhim and his brother to dine with the child king in Edinburghcastle, and there served to him “the black dinner” bewailedin a fragment of an early ballad. The two young nobles, aftera mock trial, were decapitated (November 1440).

Douglas was succeeded in his earldom by his grandfather,Sir James the Gross, an unwieldy veteran. On his death in1443, his son, William, a lad of eighteen, became earl, and wagedprivate war on Crichton, while he allied himself with Livingstone.Crichton lost the chancellorship: and the keys were given toKennedy, bishop of St Andrews and founder of St Salvator'scollege in that university. Involved in secular feuds withDouglas, Livingstone and the earl of Crawford, Kennedydestroyed Crawford with a spiritual weapon, his Curse (23rd ofJanuary 1445-1446).

On the 3rd of July 1449 James married Marie of Gueldres,seized and imprisoned the Livingstones, and generally assertedroyal power. He relied on Douglas, who (1450) was his constantcompanion, till the earl visited Rome (November 1450-April1451). In June 1451 he resigned his lands, in which he was atonce reinstated. It appears, however, that he was, or wassuspected of being, in treasonable alliance with the new earlof Crawford and the ever-turbulent Celtic lord of the Isles. Itis certain, from documents, that Douglas was always in theroyal entourage from June 1451 to January 1452, so that storiesof insults and crimes committed by him at this period seemlegendary. Nevertheless, on the 22nd of February 1452, James,who had invited Douglas, under safe-conduct, to visit him atStirling, there dirked his guest with his own hand. The kingwas exonerated by parliament, on the score of Douglas's contemptuoustreatment of his safe-conduct, and because of hisoppressions, conspiracies and refusal to aid the king againstrebels, such as the new “Tiger Earl” of Crawford.

The brother of the slain Douglas defied his king, then madehis submission, and visited London, where he probably intriguedwith the English government against his sovereign and country.In 1455 James made serious war against the “Black Douglases”of the south; his army being led by the “Red Douglas,” theearl of Angus. The royal cause was successful, and the BlackDouglas was attainted (10th of June 1455). He fled south andbecame the pensioner and ally of Edward IV., who reassertedthe traditional claim to sovereignty over Scotland—“ his rebelsof Scotland!”

From 1457 to 1459 a truce was made between Scotland andthe Lancastrian party, then in power, but in July 1460, HenryVI. was defeated and taken, and his wife and son sought James'shospitality. Roxburgh castle was in English hands; Jamesbesieged it, and on the 3rd of August 1460 was slain by thebursting of one of his own huge siege guns. The castle was taken,but the second James died at the age of thirty, leaving a childto succeed him in his heritage of woe. James II. had overcomehis nobles, but left a legacy of feuds to the coming reign.

The period of James III. is filled with the recurrent strife ofthe nobles among themselves and against law and order. SlowlyJames III.and obscurely the Renaissance comes to Scotland;its presence is indicated by the artistic tastes of theking, and, later, by the sweet and mournful poetry ofHenryson. But the Renaissance, like the religious revivalsinitiated in Italy, arrived in Scotland weak and weary; hencethe church did not share in the new enthusiasms of the faithof St Francis, and art was trampled on by the magnates whohated poetry and painting.

In politics, the queen-mother, who had the private guardianshipof her boys, the king and the dukes of Albany and Ross,turned from the Lancastrian to the Yorkist side, while Kennedyand his party (Lancastrians) were accused of endangeringScotland to please France. This was the beginning of thatmovement away from the Ancient League to partisanshipwith England, which culminated in the success of the Protestantallies of England at the Reformation. This, then, is an importantmoment in the long and weary march to union with England.

In 1461 Henry VI. was driven to take sad shelter with Kennedyat St Andrews. In June 1461 Edward IV. was crowned, andat once made pact and alliance with the banished Douglas andthe Celts of the west Highlands and the isles. From Ardtornishcastle, John, lord of the Isles, sent ambassadors to Westminster,where (1462) a treaty was made for an English alliance and thepartition of Scotland between Douglas and the Celts. A marriagebetween the mother of James III. and Edward IV. was spokenof, but Kennedy would not meet the English, and in March1463 the English treaty with Douglas and the Celts was ratified.Douglas invaded Scotland, in advance of an English army, butwas defeated by an army under Bishop Kennedy. When Francewent over to the Yorkists, Kennedy, accepting an Englishpension, made a long truce between Scotland and England(October 1464). Peace might have been assured, but Kennedydied in 1466. His tomb in his college chapel of St Salvator'sat St Andrews, his college and his bridge over the riverEden, have survived as monuments of a good and great man;they passed unscathed through the ruin wrought by thereformers.

On his death the nobles, notably Fleming, Livingstone,Crawford, Hamilton and Boyd, made a band for securing powerand place. Boyd, with some borderers, Hepburn and Ker ofCessford, seized the boy king, and Boyd had himself madegovernor, his son marrying the princess Mary, sister of James.

In July 1469 James, then about eighteen, married Margaret,daughter of King Christian of Norway, who pledged the Orkneyand Shetland Isles for her dowry, which remains unpaid. Theenemies of the Boyds instantly overthrew them, and the Hamiltons,a race of English origin, arose on their ruins to their perilousplace of possible heirs to the crown. The princess Mary wasdivorced from her Boyd husband and married Lord Hamilton.Their descendants were again and again kept from the royalsuccession only by the existence of a Stuart child, Mary, queenof Scots, or James VI. This fact, with the consequent feud ofthe Stewarts of Lennox, themselves claimants, governs the dynastic intrigues during more than two centuries and gaveimpetus to the Reformation. Never was marriage so fruitful intragedies as the wedding of Lord Hamilton and the princessMary.

There followed ecclesiastical feuds, centring round PatrickGraham, the new bishop of St Andrews. These, to the presentday, have been misunderstood (see The Archbishops of St Andrews,by Herkless and Hannay, for details). It is not possible here tounravel the problem, but documents at St Andrews, now printed,demonstrate the error of the historians who regard Graham asa holy man, persecuted because he was half a premature Protestant.At Rome he procured, without royal or national assent,the archbishopric for St Andrews; he became insane and wassucceeded by the learned Schevez. Glasgow also became anarchbishopric.

James now followed a policy in which Louis XI. succeeded,but he himself failed utterly. He surrounded himself with menof low birth, such as Ireland, a scholar and diplomatist; Rogers,a great musician; and Cochrane, apparently an architect orsculptor—he is styled a mason or stone-cutter. This arousedthe wrath of the nobles and the two princes of the blood, Albanyand Mar. Mar was arrested on a charge of magic, and died,whether murdered or from natural causes is uncertain, while hisaccomplices are said to have been the protomartyrs of witchcraft,scarcely heard of in Scotland till the reformers began toburn old women. Albany was arrested for treason, escaped toFrance, and was under sentence of forfeiture.

Relations with England were now unfriendly, and parliament,in March 1482, denounced Edward IV. as “the reiver, Edward.”By May the Douglases brought Albany from France to England,where he swore fealty to Edward, and was to be given the Scottishcrown. The duke of Gloucester (later Richard III.) marchednorth and took Berwick, while the earl of Angus, with othernobles, hanged Cochrane and other favourites of James overLauder bridge. The domestic mutiny and the English war endedin a compromise, Albany being restored to office and estates.He took Edinburgh castle, in which James was interned, andhe was made lieutenant-general. Yet, aided by Angus, hecontinued to intrigue with Edward for the gift of the Scottishcrown. By March 1483 he was reduced, we know not how; helaid down his office, and was forbidden to approach the court.On the death of Edward IV. he lost his chief supporter (9th ofApril 1483), and was forfeited while absent in England. Heand Douglas entered Scotland with a small force (22nd of July1484), and were defeated at Lochmaben: Albany escaped, wentto France, and was slain in a tournament, leaving issue, butDouglas was captured and interned till his death in the monasteryof Lindores.

Our information for this period is so scanty that we do notknow how James reached his new position, how he overcameAlbany and his other rebels. At peace with England, andallied with France, he quarrelled with the church, and it wasdecreed that the clergy who obtained benefices from Rome wereguilty of treason. He planned a set of royal marriages withEngland, and this was the ground of his subjects' charge againsthim of servility to England. “James IV. and James V. areconstantly upbraided for not doing the very things whichJames III. is execrated for having done,” namely, securing peaceand amity with their powerful neighbour. James III. “died inhis enemies' day,” and such accounts as we have of him arewritten by the partisans of his unruly nobles, Argyll, Lennoxand Angus.

They secured the crown prince, James, now aged fifteen, theirmotive being that under James III. the guilt of their murdersand rebellion still hung over their heads. The Estates refused togive them an amnesty for seven years; and the arch rebel,Angus Bell the Cat, with Argyll, the young prince, Lennox andother malcontents, declared that he was deposed, and proclaimedhis son as his successor and Argyll as chancellor. Doing whatthey falsely accused James of having done, they sent, or obtainedfrom England leave to send, members of their party to intriguewith Henry VII. (1st of May 1488). After a half reconciliation,James marched in force to Stirling, the key of the north, butthe treacherous commander of the castle, Shaw of Sauchie, heldthe castle against him. James and his leaders, Atholl andHuntly, with their Stewarts and Gordons, and the levies ofburgesses, and the mounted gentry of Fife, encountered the wildborder spearmen of Hepburn and Home and the Galloway men,the whole being led by Angus and the rebel prince at Sauchieburn, near Bannockburn. How it chanced we know not;James's horse seems to have run away and thrown him (he wasa bad horseman), and the story goes that he was taken into acottage and stabbed by a priest. In fact, as his rebels put it,“he happinit to be slain” at Beaton's mill. He was accused ofhaving accumulated great treasures. They were never found, or,if found, never accounted for by the finders.

His real history remains unknown; we have only Ferrerius,who is vague, and the late and slanderous gossip of the writersof the Reformation. We know that James was Clement; thatthe middle and lower classes stood by him; that he was a greatamateur in the arts; that he was betrayed again and again bythose of his own house, finally by his own son. A hideous taleis told by Buchanan against his private morals, but it is certainlyinaccurate in detail, and is uncorroborated, while it appears toturn on a confusion between an alleged royal mistress, “theDaisy,” and Margaret (Daisy), the king's own sister. It is clearto any reader of Ferrerius, Lesley and Buchanan that they alldrew from a common source, now unknown, and this source maywell have been a chronicle inspired by James's enemies. JamesIII. of Scotland has been almost as much the butt of slanderouscharges as the Jacobite James III. of England and VIII. ofScotland, “The Old Pretender.”

With James IV. we enter on the modern history of Scotland.The king escaped the evils of a long minority, was a “free king”James IV.and managed his own policy. He was tall, handsome,strong and recklessly brave. He inherited his father'slove of art and of nascent science; but this fault was forgivenhim, as his manners were popular, his horsemanship good, andhis bearing frank and free. The early Tudor policy of Henry VII.was not to make open war on Scotland, but to intrigue secretly,especially with the treacherous Douglas, earl of Angus, and withRamsay, earl of Bothwell under James III., but soon dispossessed.They schemed to kidnap the king as vainly as Henry VIII. laterplanned to kidnap many of his foreign opponents. Under JamesIV. the houses of Hepburn of Hailes, ancestor of Queen Mary'sBothwell; of the Huntly Gordons; and of the Kers of Ferniehirstand Cessford, rose into new importance; while the Huntlysand Argylls were entrusted with the maintenance of order amongthe fighting clans of the west and north. They aggrandizedthemselves at the expense of the Macleans, Macdonalds, Cameronsand Clan Chattan, but their sway was far from being peacefuland orderly.

The king, reckless as he was, had more than his share of theStuart melancholy. His parricidal rebellion lay heavy on hisconscience; he practised asceticism at intervals, and dreamedof eastern pilgrimages. But he also fostered a navy, under SirAndrew Wood, who swept the seas of the English pirates.James threw Scotland into the whirlpool of European politics,dealing with Spanish envoys and with the duch*ess of Burgundy,the patroness of the mysterious Perkin Warbeck, who claimedto be Richard, duke of York, son of Edward IV. Meanwhile,to balance the power of the primate, James purchased fromInnocent VIII. an archbishopric for the bishop of Glasgow(1492), who laid information against the heretics of Kyle inAyrshire. They had evolved or inherited anti-papal heresiesmuch like those of the reformers of 1559, but James turned theirtrial into a jest. He made a secret treaty to defend France ifshe were attacked by England, but meanwhile a five yearstruce was concluded (1491). In the following year James wasin correspondence with Perkin, then in Ireland; in 1495 hereceived that prétendant, married him to a daughter of Huntly,and in 1496 raided northern England in his company, — all thisin contempt of the offered hand of a Tudor princess. In theautumn of 1497 an attempted raid by James ended in a seven years' truce fostered by the Spanish envoy, Ayala, who hasleft a flourishing description of the king and his country. MeanwhilePerkin had failed in Cornwall and been captured. HenryVII. kept offering the hand of his daughter Margaret, who wasmarried to James at Holyrood in August 1503. From thiswedding, disturbed by quarrels over the queen's jewels anddowry, was to result the union of the crowns on the head ofMargaret's great-grandson, James VI., after a century of tragediesand turmoil.

In 1507 the pope failed to draw James into the league formedto check French aggression in Italy. A murder on the borderspoisoned Scottish relations with England, and the death ofHenry VII. (1509) left James face to face with his blusteringbrother-in-law, Henry VIII. The Holy League of 1511, againstFrance, found James committed to the cause of the old Frenchalliance. He strengthened his fleet, but his admiral, Sir AndrewBarton, fell in a fight with English privateers equipped by theearl of Surrey and commanded by his sons (1511). Borderhomicides added their element of international irritation, andJames renewed the ancient league with France. In 1513 DrWest, an envoy of Henry VIII., found James in the state of“a fey man,” doomed, distracted, agitated and boastful. InMay came the letter and ring of the French queen orderingJames, as her knight, to strike a blow on English ground. Hewrote to Henry none the less (24th May) with peaceful proposals,but on the 30th of June Henry invaded France.

Strange portents and warning phantasms did not checkJames: he sent forth a fleet of thirteen ships and 3000 men,Battle of Flodden. which faded into nothingness: he declared war onHenry; and on the 22nd of August he crossed theborder with all his force, including the highlandersand islesmen. After securing his flank and rear by takingNorham, Wark and Eitel castles, he awaited the approach ofSurrey's army at Ford castle, behind which lies Flodden Edge,a strong position, which he presently occupied. Surrey, whowas ill-provisioned, challenged him to fight on the open fieldof Wooler Haugh. James declined to commit this chivalrousfolly; but, for lack of scouts, permitted Surrey to out-manœuvrehim and pass, concealed by a range of hills, across his front,to a position north of Flodden, on his lines of communication.

Next day, 9th of September, Surrey crossed the Till, unobserved,by Twizel bridge and Millford, and moved south against Branxtonhill, the middle of three ridges on the Flodden slope. The groundwas difficult from heavy rains, the English troops were weary andhungry, but James had lost touch of Surrey and knew nothingof his movements till his troops appeared on his rear towardsevening. In place of remaining in his position, James burnedhis camp and hurried his men down hill to the plateau of Branxtonridge. Home and Huntly, on the Scottish left, charged EdmundHoward's force; the Tynemouth men, under Dacre, did notsupport Howard, at first, but Dacre checked Home (whoselater conduct is obscure) and drove off the Gordons. The Percysbroke Errol's force; Rothes and Crawford fell, and the kingled the centre, through heavy artillery fire, against Surrey.With Herries and Maxwell he shook the English centre, butwhile Stanley and the men of Cheshire drove the highlandersof Lennox and Argyll in flight (their leaders had already fallen),the admiral and Dacre fell on the flank of James's command,which Surrey, too wise to pursue the fleet highlanders, surroundedwith his whole force. The Scottish centre fought like Paladins,and James, breaking out in their front, hewed his way to withina lance's length of Surrey, as that leader himself avers. Therefell the king, riddled with arrows, his left hand hanging helpless,his neck deeply gashed by a bill-stroke. His peers surroundedhis body, and night fell on “the dark impenetrable wood ” ofthe Scottish spears. At dawn the survivors had retreated, onlythe light Border horse of Home hung about the field. The bishopof Durham accuses them of plundering both sides. (That Home'sBorderers had but slight loss is argued by Colonel the Hon.FitzWiiliam Elliot, in The Trustworthiness of Border Ballads,pp. 136-138.) Among the dead were thirteen earls, and James'sson, the archbishop of St Andrews. The king's death assuredthe victory, which Surrey had not the strength to pursue, thoughthe townsmen of Edinburgh built their famous Flodden Wall toresist him if he approached.

England never won a victory more creditable to the fightingand marching powers of her sons than at the battle of Flodden.The headlong recklessness of James, remarked on by Ayala,gave the opportunity, but he nobly expiated his fault. TheScots had so handled their enemies that they could not or darednot pursue their advantage; on the other hand, it was longindeed before the memory of Flodden ceased to haunt the Scotsand deter them from invading England in force.

Though Ayala's well-known letter certainly flatters the materialprogress of Scotland, the country had assuredly made greatSocial progress.advances. While England was tuneless, with Dunbarand the other “Makers” Scotland was “a nest ofsinging birds.” The good Bishop Elphinstone foundedthe university of Aberdeen in 1495; and in 1496 parliamentdecreed compulsory education, and Latin, for sons of baronsand freeholders. Prior Hepburn founded a new college, that ofSt Leonard's, in the university of St Andrews, and Scotlandowes only one university, that of Edinburgh, to the learnedenthusiasm of her reformed sons. Printing was introducedin 1507, and the march of education among the laity increasedthe general contempt for the too common ignorance that prevailedamong the clergy. The greater benefices were beingconferred on young men of high birth but of little learning.The college of Surgeons was founded by the municipality ofEdinburgh (1505), and in 1506 obtained the title of “Royal.”The stimulus given to shipbuilding encouraged commerce,and freedom from war fostered the middle class, which was soonto make its influence felt in the Reformation. The burgesses,of course, had long been a relatively rich and powerful body:it is a fond delusion to suppose that they sprang into beingunder John Knox, though their attachment to his principlesmade them prominent among his disciples, while Floddenprobably began to deter them from the ancient attachmentto France. Protestantism, and the disasters of James V., withthe regency of his widow, were to convert the majority of Scotsto the English party.

The long minority of James V. was fatal to the Stuart dynasty.The intrigues of Henry VIII., the ambition of Angus, whoJames V.married the king's mother (Margaret, sister of HenryVIII.); the counter intrigues of Albany, a resident inFrance, and son of the rebellious Albany, brother of James III.;the constantly veering policy and affections of the queen-mother;and the gold of England, filled fourteen years with distractions,murders, treasons and conspiracies. Already Henry VIII. wastrying to kidnap the child king, who found, as he grew up, thathis stepfather, Angus, was his master and was the paid servantof Henry. The nobles were now of the English, now of theFrench party; none could be trusted to be loyal except theclergy, and they were factious and warlike. The result was thatJames threw off the yoke of his stepfather, Angus; drove himand his astute and treacherous brother, Sir George Douglas, intoEngland (thereby raising up, like Bruce, a fatal party of lordsdisinherited), and while he was alienated from Henry and hisReformation, threw himself into the arms of France, of theclergy and of Rome.

Meanwhile the many noble and dissatisfied pensioners ofEngland adopted Protestantism, which also made its way amongthe barons, burgesses and clergy, so that, for political reasons,James at last could not but be hostile to the new creed; hebequeathed this anti-protestantism, with the French alliance,through his wife, Mary of Guise, and the influence of the house ofLorraine, to his unhappy daughter, Mary Stuart. The country,ever jealous of its independence, found at last that Francethreatened her freedom even more than did England, the apparentenemy; and thus, partly from Protestantism, partlyfrom patriotism, the English party in Scotland proved victorious,and the Reformation was accomplished. Had Henry beenhonourable and gentle, had his sister not shared his vehementpassions, James and Henry, nephew and uncle, might have been united in peace; and the Scottish Reformation might haveharmoniously blended with that of England.

It is impossible here fully to unfold the tortuous intrigueswhich darkened the minority of James. Who was to govern theyoung prince and the country? His wavering, intriguing mother,Margaret Tudor, or her sometimes friend, sometimes foe, Albany,arrived from France; or her discarded husband, Angus, the paidtool of Henry VIII.? By June 1528 the young king settled thequestion. He had complained to Henry of the captivity inwhich he was held by his hated stepfather, Angus. In JuneAngus had prepared forces to punish the Border raiders, andJames, rightly or wrongly, seems to have suspected that he wasto be handed over bodily to his royal uncle. On the 27th of Mayhe was with Angus in the castle of Edinburgh; on the 30th ofMay, by a bold and dexterous ride, he was with his mother in thecastle of Stirling, with Archbishop Beaton, Argyll and Maxwell.In July he mastered Edinburgh, and bade Angus and his brother,Sir George Douglas, place themselves in ward north of Tay.This he announced to Henry, the paymaster of the Douglases,and the breach between the two kings was never healed. A warbroke out between the Douglases and James, but a five yearspeace, not including the restoration of Angus, was concluded inDecember 1528. Angus prolonged his outrages on the Scottishborder till 1529, when he entered England as a subsidizedmischief-maker against Scotland. Not till James's death didthe Douglases return to their own country. Meanwhile Jamesvisited the Border, hanged some brigand lairds, and reduced suchEnglish partisans as the Kers, Rutherfords, Stewarts of Traquair,Veitches and Turnbulls. Johnny Armstrong of Gilnockie, famedin ballad and legend, was hanged, with forty of his clan, atCarlanrigg, in Teviotdale. The tale of royal treachery in hiscapture is popular; the best authorities for it seem to be thesynoptic versions of a ballad and of the fabulous chronicler,Pitscottie.

When James V. became “a free King” the main problemsbefore him were his relations with Henry VIII. and with thenascent Reformation. From 1535 Henry was anxious thatJames should meet him in England. Henry was notoriouslytreacherous; to kidnap was his ideal in diplomacy. His pensionerAngus (1531) was to have aided Bothwell in crowningHenry in Edinburgh. In 1535 Henry sent Dr Barlowe to convertJames to his own religious ideas, Erastian, anti-papal, theseizure of the wealth of the church. James (1536) was willingenough to meet Henry in England, but his council, especiallythe clerical members, were opposed to the tryst. James desiredto wed none but his mistress, Margaret Erskine, the mother ofthe Regent Moray. As Henry had once declared that he couldonly meet a Scottish king, in England, as a vassal, James's councilhad good reason for their attitude. Had they consented, hadJames married Henry's daughter, Mary (called “The Bloody”),it is not plain that advantage would have come of the alliance.

In 1536 James sailed to France, and (1st of Jan. 1537)married Madeleine, daughter of Francis I. The die was cast;he was committed to France and to the ancient faith. This wasthe cardinal misfortune of the Stuarts, but who could trustHenry, and who could join in the fiery persecutions of thenew pope-king? In James's absence, Scottish heretics fled toEngland, while Henry's heretics fled to Scotland. Madeleinedied on the 7th of July 1537. “Lady Glamis,” as she was called,a Douglas lady, widow of Lord Glamis, was burned for abettingher brother Angus and devising the king's death by poison. Thetruth of this matter is obscure; our early historians of this age,Protestants like Knox and Pitscottie, with Buchanan and theCatholic Lesley, are seldom to be trusted without documentarycorroboration.

In 1538 James married a lady whom Henry desired to add tohis list of wives, Mary of Guise, at this moment a young widow,Madame de Longueville. Mary shines like a good deed in anaughty world; but she was a Catholic, was of the house ofLorraine, and in diplomacy was almost as other diplomatists.

In 1539 David Beaton, the Cardinal, now aged forty-five,succeeded his uncle, James Beaton, as primate of Scotland.He had been educated in Scotland and Paris, held the rich abbeyof Arbroath, and for some twenty years at least lived openlywith Mariotte Ogilvy, of the house of Airlie. He was a practiseddiplomatist, and necessarily of the French and Catholic party.His wealth, astuteness, experience and tenacity of purpose, wereto baffle Henry's attacks on Scottish independence, till thedaggers of pietistic cut-throats closed the long debate. Beatonwas cruel: he had no more scruples than Henry about burningmen for their beliefs. But the martyrs were few, compared withthe numbers of people whom the reformed kirk burned forwitchcraft. Some twelve martyrs at least perished in 1539-1540,and George Buchanan, whose satires on the Franciscans delightedthe king, escaped to France, in circ*mstances which he describeddiversely on different occasions, as was his habit.

In May 1540 James visited the highlands, and later reducedthe Macdonalds and annexed the lordship of the Isles to thecrown. In 1541 he lost two infant sons, and the mysteriousaffair of the death of that aesthetic ruffian, Sir James Hamiltonof Finnart, was supposed to lie heavy on his mind. There weredisputes with Henry, who demanded the extradition of fugitivefriars, which James refused. In 1541 he disappointed Henry,not meeting him at York, and this course, advised by his counciland Francis I., rankled deeply, while Angus was making a largeEnglish raid on the Border in time of peace. The English faredill, and Henry horrified his council by his usual proposal tokidnap the king of Scotland. Henry's men marauded on theBorder, but a force which James summoned to Fala Moor(31st of October 1542) contained but one lord who would marchwith him—Napier of Merchistoun. About this date occurs thelegend of a list of hundreds of heretics, whom the clergy askedJames to proscribe. No king of Scotland could dream of executingsuch a coup d'état; the authority for it is that mythopoeicearl of Arran who later became regent, and told the fable toHenry's agent, Sir Ralph Sadleyr.

Presently ensued the Scottish raid of Solway Moss and thecapture of many of the Scottish nobles. The facts may be foundin contemporary English dispatches printed in the Hamiltonpapers. The fables are to be read in Knox's History of theReformation in Scotland, and in Froude. The secret of the raidwas sold by the brother of Angus, Sir George Douglas, and byother traitors. England was prepared, and on the 23rd ofNovember routed and drove into Solway Moss a demoralizedmultitude of farm-burning Scots. The guns and some 1200 menwere taken; many men were drowned. James retired heartbrokenfrom the Border to Edinburgh, where he executed business.He then dwelt for a week at Linlithgow with the queen,who was about to give birth to a child. Next he bore “thepageant of his bleeding heart” to Falkland, where he heard ofthe birth (8th of December) of his daughter, Mary Stuart.Uncomforted, he died on the 14th (15th?) of December. Accountsdiffer as to the date. Sheer grief and shame, and, it is said,sorrow for the failure in war of his favourite, Oliver Sinclair,were the apparent causes of his death. Knox appears to insinuatethat a rumour declared Mary of Guise and the cardinalguilty of poisoning James, but an attempt had been made toput another sense on the words of this historian, who frequentlyhints that Mary was the mistress of the cardinal (Knox, vol. i.p. 92).

Again Scotland had to endure a long royal minority. Thedistraction of Scotland promised to Henry VIII. a good chanceMary, queen of Scots.of annexing the kingdom, whether by the marriage ofEdward, prince of Wales, to the infant queen, Mary,or by acquiring, through treachery, her person andthe castles of the country. Sir George Douglas atonce crossed the border. Angus soon followed, with the lordscaptured at Solway Moss, all bound more or less to work Henry'swill. In Scotland the cardinal; Arran, who was next heir tothe throne; Huntly and Murray were proclaimed regents. Knoxand others speak of a will of James V., forged by the cardinal,but the stories are inconsistent, and rest mainly on the untrustworthyevidence of Arran. His legitimacy was rather worsethan dubious, and henceforth he sided with the party most powerful at each crisis. Now the restored Douglases were mostpowerful; by the 28th of January 1543 they imprisoned thecardinal, but their party was already breaking up. In Marcha full parliament was held, the Bible in English was allowedto circulate, and envoys were sent to treat with Henry. Butby the 22nd of March Beaton was a free man, liberated bySir George Douglas. Arran's brother, later archbishop of StAndrews, arrived from France and worked on the waveringregent, while his rival, Lennox, came also from France, andfailing to oust Arran, became Henry's pensioner in England.If Arran were illegitimate, Lennox was next heir to the throne,and the consequent Stewart-Hamilton feud was to ruin MaryStuart. Sir George Douglas went to London and negotiatedwith Henry for the marriage of Mary and Prince Edward.But the people were still so averse to England that Beaton'swas the more popular party: they carried Mary to Stirling:the treaty with Henry was ratified, indeed, but a quarrel waspicked over the arrest by England of six Scottish ships; andArran, who had just given orders for the sack of monasteries inEdinburgh, suddenly (3rd of September) fled to Beaton and wasreconciled to the church, just after he had (28th of August)proclaimed Beaton an outlaw.

At once the sacking of religious houses in Dundee, Lindoresand Arbroath had begun; the hour of religious revolution hadstruck; but the godly were put down when the regent and thecardinal were so suddenly reconciled. Arran must have perceivedthat Henry had infuriated the Scots and that the cardinalmight adopt the claims of Lennox and proclaim Arranillegitimate. But Beaton could not keep both Arran, whom hehad now secured, and Lennox, who betrayed him, and made forEngland. The cardinal, however, punished the church-sackersand imprisoned George Douglas, while Hertford in 1544 movedwith a large army against Scotland, and Henry negotiated witha crew of discontented lairds and a man named Wishart for themurder or capture of Beaton. Hertford struck at Edinburgh inMay, and in the leader's own words “made a jolly fire” anddid much mischief. The suffering Commons now began toblame Beaton. Lennox presently married Margaret, Henry'sniece, daughter of his sister, Margaret Tudor, by her husband,Angus. Their eldest son was the miserable Henry Darnley,second husband of Mary Stuart. In Scotland arose partydivisions and reunions, the queen mother being in the hands ofthe Douglas faction, while Beaton's future murderers backedhim and Arran. Then the Douglases allied themselves withthe cardinal, and Henry VIII. tried to kidnap Angus and hisbrother, Sir George. For once true to their country, they helpedBuccleuch to defeat a large English force at Ancram Moor inFebruary 1545, and Henry, seeking help from Cassilis, revivedthe plot to murder Beaton. Cassilis was a Protestant and thepatron of Knox's friend and teacher, George Wishart; Cassiliswould not commit himself formally, and the threads of the plotare lost, owing to a great gap in the records.

The Douglases continued to play the part of double traitors;Hertford, in autumn, again devastated the border and burnedreligious houses (whether he always burned the abbey churchesis disputed), but Beaton never lost heart and had some successes.We lose trace of the plot to slay him from the 20th of October1545 till the end of May 1546, the documents being missing;but on the 29th of May 1546 Beaton was cruelly murdered inhis castle of St Andrews. On the 1st of March he had causedGeorge Wishart, a man of austere life and a Protestant propagandist,to be strangled and then burned. To what extent revengefor Wishart was the motive of the Kirkcaldys and Lesliesand Melvilles who led the assassins, and how far they were paidagents of England, is unknown. These men had been alternatelybitter enemies and allies of Beaton; in 1543 Kirkcaldy of Grangeand the master of Rothes were offering their venal daggers toEngland, through a Scot named Wishart. The details of thefinal and successful plot were uncertain—the martyr Wishartcannot be identified with Wishart the would-be murderer—butwith Beaton practically expired the chances of the French andCatholic party in Scotland.

The death of Beaton brought the Douglases into resistanceto Henry VIII., who aided the murderers, now besieged inBeaton's castle of St Andrews. An armistice was arranged;the besieged begging for a remission from the pope, and alsoasking Henry to request the emperor to move the pope to refuse.The remission, however, arrived before the 2nd of April 1547,and was refused by the murderers.

Henry VIII. and Francis II. were now dead. In mid JulyFrench armed galleons approached St Andrews, and the castlesurrendered as soon as artillery was brought to bear on it.With other captives, John Knox was put aboard a French galley.In September the Protector Somerset (Hertford) invaded andutterly routed the Scots at Pinkie near Musselburgh. No resultensued, except Scottish demands for French aid, and a resolveto send Mary to France. Ferocious fighting, aided by Frenchauxiliaries, followed: in 1550 the English abandoned all castlesoccupied by them in Scotland. Mary was now in France, thedestined bride of the Dauphin; while Knox, released from thegalleys, preached his doctrines in Berwick and Newcastle, andwas a chaplain of Edward VI., till the crowning of Mary Tudordrove him to France and Switzerland. Here he adopted, withpolitical modifications of his own, the extremest form of Calvinism.

A visit of Mary of Guise to France (1550) ended in her acquiringthe regency, which she administered mainly under Frenchadvice. The result was irritation, the nobles lookingReligious revolution.towards England as soon as Mary Tudor was succeededby Elizabeth, while Protestantism daily gained ground,inflamed by a visit from Knox (1555-1556). Invitedagain, in 1557, he shrank from the scene of turmoil, buta “band” of a Protestant tendency was made by nobles, amongthem Mary's natural brother James Stewart, later the RegentMurray (3rd of Dec. 1557). On the 24th of April, Mary weddedthe Dauphin, and about the same date Walter Milne, an agedex-priest, was burned as a heretic, the last Protestant martyrin Scotland. There was image-burning by godly mobs in autumn;a threat of the social revolution, to begin at Whitsuntide, wasissued on the 1st of January 1559,—“ the Beggars' Warning.”Mary of Guise issued proclamations against preachers and church wreckers,backed by a statute of March 1559. The preachers,mainly ex-friars and tradesmen, persevered, and they weresummoned to stand their trial in April, but Knox arrived inPerth, where an armed multitude supported their cause. Onthe 10th of May they were outlawed for non-appearance atStirling. Knox accuses Mary of Guise of treachery: the chargerests mainly on his word.

On the 10th of May the brethren wrecked the monasteriesof Perth, after a sermon by Knox, and the revolution was launched,the six or seven preachers already threatening the backwardmembers of their party with excommunication. The movementspread to St Andrews, to Stirling, to Edinburgh, which thebrethren entered, while Mary of Guise withdrew. She was stilltoo strong for them, and on the 24th of July they signed a compact.They misrepresented its terms, broke them, and accusedthe regent of breaking them. Knox and William Kirkcaldyof Grange had been intriguing with England for aid, and for themarriage of the earl of Arran (son of the earl of Arran, now alsoduc de Chatelherault, ex-regent) with Queen Elizabeth. Heescaped from threatened prison in France, by way of Switzerland,and though Elizabeth never intended to marry him, the Hamiltonsnow deserted Mary of Guise for the Anglo-Protestant party.Maitland of Lethington, the Achitophel of his day, also desertedthe regent; but in November the reformers were driven by theregent and her small band of French soldiers from Edinburghto Stirling. They were almost in despair, but, heartened byKnox and Lethington, they resumed negotiations with Elizabeth,who had already supplied them with money. An English fleetsuddenly appeared, and drove the French to retreat into Leithfrom an expedition to the west. In February 1560 a league wasmade at Berwick between Elizabeth and “the Congregation.”France was helpless, the tumult of Ambroise alarmed the Guisesfor their own lives and power, and the regent, long in badhealth, was dying in Edinburgh castle. On the 10th of June she expired, and hunger forced her French garrison in Leith,after a gallant and sanguinary defence, to surrender.

After an armistice, treaties of peace were concluded on the6th of July: the treaty, as far as it touched the rights of MaryStuart, was not accepted by her, nor did she give her assentto the ensuing parliament or convention of Estates. Knox andthe other preachers began to organize the new kirk, under“superintendents” (not bishops), whose rule was very brief.The Convention began business in August, crowded by personsnot used to be present, and accepted a Knoxian “Confession ofFaith.” On the 24th of August three statutes abolished papaland prelatical authority and jurisdiction; repealed the oldlaws in favour of the church, and punished celebrants andattendants of the Mass—for the first offence by confiscation,for the second by exile, for the third by death. The preacherscould get the statute passed, but the sense of the laity preventedthe death penalty from being inflicted, except, as far as weknow, in one or two instances. The Book of Discipline and theBook of Common Order express Knox's ideals, which, as far asthey were noble, as in the matter of education and of provisionfor the poor, remained, in part or in whole, “devout imaginations.”Not so the Knoxian claims for the power of ministersto excommunicate, with civil penalties, and generally to “rulethe roast” in secular matters. The nobles and gentry clung tothe wealth of the old church; the preachers, but for congregationalofferings, must have starved.

Neglect as well as mob violence left the ecclesiastical buildingsin a ruinous condition, but the authority of the preachers, withtheir power of boycotting (excommunication), became a theocracy.The supernatural claims of these pulpiteers to dominancein matters public or private were the main cause of a century ofwar and tumult. The preachers became, what the nobles hadbeen, the opponents of authority; the Stuarts were to breakthem and be broken on them till 1688. In the hands of theministers a Calvinism more Calvinistic than Calvin's was thebitter foe of freedom of life, of conscience, and of religioustolerance. On the other hand, unlike the corrupt clergy whomthey dispossessed, they were almost invariably men of pure andholy life; stainless in honour; incorruptible by money; poorand self-sacrificing; and were not infrequently learned in theoriginal languages of the scriptures. Many were thought to bepossessed of powers of healing and of prediction; in fact abelief in their supernormal gifts, like those of Catholic saints,was part of the basis of their prestige. The lower classes, bulliedby sabbatarianism and deprived of the old revels, were restiveand hostile; but the educated middle class was with thepreachers; so were many lesser country gentry; and the nobles,securing the spoils of the church, were acquiescent.

The religious revolution in Scotland, after the work of destructionhad been done, was the most peaceful that occurred in anyMary's return to Scotland.European country. On the Catholic side there was asyet no power of resistance. Huntly, the Catholic“co*ck of the North,” had himself been compromisedin the actions of the Congregation. How the Catholicsof the west highlands took the change of creed we do not know,but they were not fanatically devout and attempted no Pilgrimageof Grace. Life went on much as usual, and the country,with a merely provisional government, was peaceful enoughunder the guidance of Moray, Maitland of Lethington, and theother lay Protestant leaders. They wished, as we saw, to securethe hand of Elizabeth for the earl of Arran, a match which wouldpractically have taken away the Scottish crown from MaryStuart, unless she were backed by the whole force of France.But Elizabeth had seen Arran in London and had probablydetected his hysterical folly. He actually became a suitor forMary's hand, when the death of her husband the French king(5th of December 1560) left her a friendless exile. Her kinsmen,the Guises, fell from power, and were no longer to be feared byEngland, so that Elizabeth need not abandon her favourite,Lord Robert Dudley, in the hope of securing Scotland by hermarriage with Arran. In the spring of 1561, Mary's brother,Lord James Stewart, lay prior of St Andrews, visited her in theinterest of the Scottish Protestant party, while Lesley, laterbishop of Ross, brought the promises of Huntly. He wouldrestore the Mass in the North and welcome the queen at Aberdeenif she would land there, but Mary knew the worth of Huntly'sword, and preferred such trust as might be ventured on the goodfaith of her brother. She foiled the attempts of the Englishambassador to make her ratify the treaty of Edinburgh, and,while Lethington, no worse a prophet than Knox, predicted“strange tragedies,” Mary came home.

Young as she was, she came as no innocent novice to a countryseething with all the perfidious ambitions that a religious revolutionbrings to the surface. She was wise with the wisdom of theGuises, but sincere friends she had none, and with all her trainedfascinations she made few, except in the circle of the Flemings,Beatons, Livingstones and Seatons. Lethington, who haddeserted her mother, dreaded her arrival; she forgave him,and for a time, relying on him and her brother, contrived tosecure a measure of tranquillity.

Scotland was, doubtless, in Mary's mind, a mere stepping-stoneto England. There the Catholic party was strong but forits lack of a leader, and to the English Catholics Mary seemedtheir rightful queen. By one way or other—by a Spanishmarriage, by the consent of Elizabeth to recognize Mary as herheir, by the ambitions of her own nobles and the wit of Lethington,ever anxious to unite the island under one sovereign—Maryhoped to wear the three crowns. Catholicism she would restoreif she could, but that was not her first object. It was commonlythought that, though she would never turn Calvinist, she mightadopt the Anglican doctrine as understood by Elizabeth, if onlyshe could be recognized as Elizabeth's successor. Till shebecame Elizabeth's captive there was always the possible hopeof her conversion, and despite her professions to the pope therewas at least one moment when the pope perceived this possibility.Meanwhile she only asked freedom of conscience for herself, andher mass in her own chapel. The bitter fanaticism of Knox onthis point encountered the wiser policy of Lord James and ofLethington.

Mary had her mass, but the constant and cowardly attackson her faith and on her priests embittered her early years ofqueenhood in her own country. The politicians hoped thatElizabeth might convert Mary to her own invisible shade ofProtestantism if the sister sovereigns could but meet, and fortwo years the promise of a meeting was held up before Mary.

Meanwhile the needy and reckless Bothwell, a partisan ofMary of Guise, a Protestant and the foe of England, was accusedby Arran of proposing to him a conspiracy to seize the queen,but the ensuing madness of Arran left this plot a mystery,though Bothwell was imprisoned till he escaped in August 1562.Mary then undertook a journey to the north, which ended in abattle with the Gordons, the death of Huntly and the executionof one of his sons. This attack by a Catholic queen on the leaderof the Catholic party has been explained in various ways. ButMary's heart was in the expedition and in the overthrow ofHuntly; she was in the hands of her brother, to whom she hadsecretly given the earldom of Murray, coveted by Huntly, whosegood faith she had never believed in, and whose power was aptto trouble the state and disturb her friendly relations with England.She was deliberately “running the English course,” andshe crushed a probable alliance between the great clans of theGordons and Hamiltons.

The question of her marriage was all important, and herchances were not improved by the scandal of Chastelard, whetherhe acted as an emissary of the Huguenots, sent to smirch hercharacter, or merely played the fatuous fool in his own conceit.He was executed on the 22nd of February 1563 at St Andrews.Lethington then went to London to watch over Mary's interests,and either to arrange her marriage with Don Carlos, or to putpressure on Elizabeth by the fear of that alliance. Now, inMarch 1563, Elizabeth first drew before the Scottish queen thelure of a marriage with her favourite, Lord Robert Dudley, Maryto be acknowledged as her successor if Elizabeth died withoutissue. Later in the year, and after Lethington's diplomatic mission to France, Elizabeth announced that a marriage of Marywith a Spanish, Imperial or French prince would mean war,while she still hinted at the Leicester marriage, or perhaps at aunion with young Henry Darnley, son of Lennox. Elizabeth'sreal intention was merely “to drive time,” to distract Scotlandand to leave her rival isolated. The idea of a Spanish marriageexcited the wrath of Knox, whose interviews with Mary didnothing but irritate both parties and alienate the politiciansfrom the more enthusiastic Protestants. The negotiations forthe Leicester marriage were prolonged till March 1565, whenElizabeth had let slip on Mary Henry Darnley (the young sonof Lennox, who himself had been allowed to return to Scotland),and at the same time made it clear that she had never beenhonest in offering Leicester.

Till the spring of 1565, Mary, despite the insults to her religionand the provocations to herself, had remained attached to “theMarriage with Darnley.English course” and to the counsels of Moray andLethington. Her naturally high temper, wearied oftreacheries and brow-beatings, now at last overcameher. Darnley was esteemed handsome, though hisportraits give an opposite impression; his native qualities ofcowardice, perfidy, profligacy and overweening arrogance wereat first concealed, and in mid April 1565 Lethington was sent toLondon, not to renew the negotiations with Leicester (as hadbeen designed till the 31st of March), but to announce Mary'sintended wedding with her cousin. Thus the cunning of Elizabethand Cecil had its reward. Darnley being a Catholic, asfar as he was anything, the jealous fears of the Brethren underKnox reached a passionate height. The Hamiltons saw theirStuart enemies in power and favour. Murray knew that hisday of influence was over, and encouraged by the promises ofElizabeth, who was remonstrating violently against the matchinto which she had partly beguiled and partly forced Mary, heassumed a hostile attitude and was outlawed (6th of August1565). A week earlier Mary, without waiting for the necessarypapal dispensation (Pollen, Papal Negotiations with Mary Stuart),had publicly married Darnley, who bore the title of king, butnever received the crown matrimonial.

Mary now promised restoration to Huntly's son, Lord George;she recalled Bothwell, who had a considerable military reputation,from exile in France; and she pursued Murray with hisallies through the south of Scotland to Dumfries, whence shedrove him over the English border in October. Here Elizabethrebuked and disavowed him, and Mary's triumph seemedcomplete. Her valour, energy and victory over Elizabeth wereundeniable, but she was now in the worst of hands, and her careertook its fatal ply. Lethington had not left her, but he was overlooked;Lennox and the impracticable Darnley were neglected;and the dangerous earl of Morton, a Douglas, had to tremble forhis lands and office as chancellor, while Mary rested on herforeign secretary, the upstart David Riccio; on Sir JamesBalfour, noted for falseness even in that age; and on Bothwell.

As early as September 1565 gossips were busy over theindiscretion of Riccio's favour: Darnley had forfeited the goodopinion of his wife; was angry because the Hamiltons were notwholly sacrificed to the ancient feud of Lennox and his clan;and Knox's party looked forward with horror to the parliamentof March 1566, when Mary certainly meant “to do somethingtending to some good anent restoring the ancient religion.”She was also supposed to have signed a Catholic league, whichonly existed in devout imaginations, but in February 1560 shesent the bishop of Dunblane to crave a large subsidy from thepope. Quite ignorant as to the real state of affairs, he raisedthe money and sent a nuncio, who never risked himself in Scotland,but made the extraordinary proposal later, that Maryshould execute or at least “discourt” her chief advisers.

Meanwhile the clouds of hatred gathered over the queen.Lethington (5th of February 1566), wrote to Cecil saying that“we must chop at the very root,” and Randolph, Elizabeth'sambassador, heard that measures against Mary's own personwere being taken. Randolph was dismissed for supplyingMurray with English gold, from Berwick he and Bedfordreported to Cecil the progress of the conspiracy. While Marywas arranging a marriage between Bothwell and the late Huntly'sdaughter, Lady Jane Gordon, Darnley intrigued with LordRuthven and George Douglas, a bastard kinsman of Morton,for the murder of Riccio, and for his own acquisition of thecrown matrimonial. Morton and Lindsay were brought into theplot, while Murray, in England, also signed. He was to returnto Edinburgh as soon as the deed of slaughter was done, andbefore parliament could proceed to his forfeiture.

Mary, according to Ruthven's published account, had herselfunconstitutionally named the executive committee of parliament,Riccio's murder.the Lords of the Articles, who were usuallyelected in various ways by the Estates themselves.While Mary was at supper, on the 9th of March,Darnley, with Ruthven, George Douglas and others, entered theboudoir in Holyrood, by his private stair, while Morton and hisaccomplices, mainly Douglases, burst in by way of the greatstaircase. There had been an intention of holding some mocktrial of Riccio, but the fury of the crowd overcame them:Riccio was dragged from Mary's table and fell under more thanfifty dagger wounds. While Mary, Darnley and Ruthvenexchanged threats and taunts, Bothwell and Huntly escapedfrom the palace, but next day, Mary contrived to send letters tothem and Atholl. On the following evening Murray arrived,and now even Murray was welcome to his sister. Darnley hadtaken on him (his one act of kingly power) to dismiss the parliament,but he now found himself the mere tool of his accomplices.He denied—he never ceased to deny—his share in the guilt,and Mary worked on his vanity and his fears, and moulded his“heart of wax” to her will. On his assurances the lords,expecting an amnesty, withdrew their guards from the palaceand next day found that the bird had flown to the strong castleof Dunbar. Hence Mary summoned the forces of the country,under Bothwell and Huntly; she forgave Murray; the murderershad no aid from the Protestants of Edinburgh, who as beforefailed them in their need. Knox himself fled to Kyle, thoughthere is no evidence that he was privy to a deed which he calls“worthy of all praise,” and Morton and Ruthven spurred toBerwick, while Lethington skulked in Atholl. His possessionswere handed over to Bothwell. Darnley betrayed some obscureaccomplices. He was now equally detested by Murray, by thenew exiles and by the queen, while she reconciled Murray andBothwell. She tried to assuage all feuds; in an inventory ofher jewels she left many of them to Darnley, in case she and herchild did not survive its birth. The infant, James, was born inthe castle on the 19th of June.

On Mary's recovery, her aversion to Darnley, and her confidencein Bothwell, were unconcealed; and, early in September,she admitted Lethington to her presence. She had learned thatDarnley meant to leave the country: she met him before herPrivy Council, who sided with her; he withdrew, and the lords,including Murray, early in October signed a “band” disclaimingall obedience to him. On the 7th or 9th of October, Mary wentto Jedburgh on the affairs of Border justice, and a week latershe rode with Murray to Hermitage castle, where for severaldays Bothwell had lain, wounded nearly to death by Eliot, aborder reiver. On her return she fell into an almost fatal illnessand prepared for her end with great courage and piety; Darnleynow visited her, but was ill-received, while Bothwell was borneto Jedburgh from Hermitage in a litter. While Buchananrepresents the pair as indulging in a guilty passion, the Frenchambassador, du Croc, avers that Mary was never in better reputewith her subjects. On the 24th of November Mary was atCraigmillar castle, near Edinburgh, where undoubtedly she helda conference with her chief advisers that boded no good toDarnley; and there were rumours of Darnley's design to seizethe infant prince and rule in his name. The evidence onthese points is disputable, but now, or not long after, Huntly,Bothwell, Lethington and Argyll signed a “band” for Darnley'smurder.

Meanwhile, in December, Mary held the feasts for the baptismof her son by Catholic rites at Stirling (17th of December), while Darnley stood aloof, in fear and anger. A week later, movedby Bedford, representing Elizabeth, and by Bothwell and herDarnley's murder.other advisers, Mary pardoned Morton and hisaccomplices. She also restored Archbishop Hamiltonto his consistorial jurisdiction, but withdrew her act,in face of Presbyterian opposition. Darnley had retired to hisfather's house at Glasgow, where he fell ill of small-pox, and, onthe 14th of January 1567 Mary, from Holyrood, offered to visithim, though he had replied by a verbal insult to a former offerof a visit from Stirling. About this week must have occurredthe interview in the garden at the Douglas's house of Whittingehame,between Morton, Bothwell and Lethington, when Mortonrefused to be active in Darnley's murder, unless he had a writtenwarrant from the queen. This he did not obtain. On the 20thof January 1567 Mary left Edinburgh for Glasgow, her purposebeing to bring Darnley back to Craigmillar. At this time (the22nd-25th of January), she must have written the two firstCasket Letters to Bothwell. Letter II. (really Letter I.) leavesno doubt, if we accept it, as to her murderous design (seeCasket Letters).What followed must be read in Mary's biography:the end was the murder of Darnley in the house at Kirk o' Field,after the midnight of Sunday, the 9th of February.

Public and conspicuous as was the crime, the house beingblown up with gunpowder, no secret has been better kept thanMarriage with Bothwell.the details. The facts of Mary's lawless marriagewith Bothwell, her capture at Carberry Hill, herconfinement in Loch Leven Castle, her escape, herdefeat at Langside, and her fatal flight to an Englishprison, with the proceedings of the English Commissions, whichuttered no verdict, must be read in her biography (seeMary Stuart).

Scotland was now ruled by her brother, the Regent Murray,in the name of her infant son, James VI. Murray arrestedJames VI.: Internal Contentions.Lethington, as accused of Darnley's murder, andLethington was now lodged under ward in Edinburgh,but Kirkcaldy of Grange released him and gave himshelter in Edinburgh castle, which he commanded(23rd of October). Lethington was to be tried, but his armedfriends mustered in great numbers, and, secure in the castle,he and Kirkcaldy upheld the cause of Mary. Lethington'smotive is obvious; in Mary's success lay his chance of safety:how he won over Kirkcaldy is unknown. The rebellion in thenorth of England failed, Northumberland was driven across theborder, and it was Murray's idea to barter him for Mary, in thebeginning of January 1570. But on the 23rd of January, Murraywas shot dead, in the street of Linlithgow, by a Hamilton, withthe approval and aid of Archbishop Hamilton and other heads ofthe house.

The contending parties, queen's men and king's men, nowmade approaches to each other; neither had a share in theHamiltons' crime. But Randolph, sent to Edinburgh for thepurpose, kept them apart; Elizabeth dispatched Sussex toravage the Scottish border, in revenge for a raid by Buccleuch,and in May Lennox entered Scotland with an English force andsoon was appointed regent (17th of July). This meant a warof Stuarts against Hamiltons, and, generally, of “Queen'smen” against “King's men.” Truces and empty negotiationsmerely protracted disorder. On the 2nd of April 1571 Mary'sparty lost Dumbarton castle, which Crawford of Jordanhill tookby a daring night surprise; and Archbishop Hamilton, a prisoner,was hanged without trial. In May the Hamiltons enteredEdinburgh, and later Lennox, in a parliament held at Leith,secured the forfeiture of Lethington. As the year passed by,Argyll, Cassilis, Eglintoun and Boyd went over to Lennox'sparty, and in an otherwise futile raid of Kirkcaldy's men onStirling, Lennox was captured and was shot by a man namedCalder. In England the Ridolphi-Norfolk plot was discovered,and at the end of 1571 Buchanan's “Detection” of Mary, withtranslations of the Casket Letters, was published. ThoughMar was now regent, Morton was the man of action. InFebruary 1572 he forced on the kirk an order of bishops,“Tulchan bishops,” filters through which the remainingwealth of the church trickled into the coffers of the state, orof the regent.

This was the beginning of the sorrows of more than a century.The kirk Presbyterian was founded on the Genevan model, andCrown and Kirk.was intended to be a theocracy. She had claimed,since the riots at Perth in 1559, the Power of the Keys,with the power of excommunicating even the king, asentence practically equivalent to outlawry. These pretensionswere incompatible with the freedom of the state and of individuals.It became the policy of the crown to check the preachers bymeans of the order of bishops, first reintroduced by Morton, andworthy of their origin. The kirk was robbed afresh, beneficeswere given to such villainous cadets of great families as ArchibaldDouglas, an agent in Darnley's murder; and though, underthe scholarly but fierce Andrew Melville, the kirk purified herselfafresh and successfully opposed the bishops, James VI.dominated her again, when he came to the English crown, andthe result was the long war between claims equally exorbitantand intolerable, those of the crown and the kirk.

The death of Mar (28th of October 1572) left power in thestronger hands of Morton, and the death of Knox (24th ofNovember) put the kirk for a while at the mercy of the newregent. Meanwhile Mary's party dwindled away; at a meetingin Perth (23rd of February 1573) her thanes fled from her, andElizabeth at last reinforced Mary's enemies with men and artillery.On the 28th of May Edinburgh castle surrendered at discretion.Lethington, the heart of the long resistance, died, a paralytic,in prison, and Morton resisted the generous efforts made to savethe gallant Kirkcaldy. Knox had prophesied that he would behanged, and hanged he was.

Despite the ferocity of partisans in “the Douglas wars,” anEnglish envoy reported that the power of the country gentryand the boroughs had increased, while that of the great waveringnobles, Hamilton, Huntly and others, was diminishing. The“navy was so augmented as it is a thing almost incredible,”but none the less £100 sterling was worth as much, Drury wrotefrom Berwick, as £1000 Scots.

In 1575, at the General Assembly, Andrew Melville, now a manof thirty, and, with Buchanan, the foremost scholar of Scotland,especially in Greek, caused the lawfulness of bishops to be mooted.Thenceforward Scotland was engaged in a kind of “bishopswar.” Meanwhile Morton found the old Marian party-feudreviving, and in 1577, knowing his own guilt in Darnley's murder,he attempted to win the alliance of Mary for his own security.In March 1578, a coalition of his public and private foes causedMorton to resign the regency, while the young earl of Marbecame custodian of the boy king. On the 28th of May, Mortonallied himself with Mar, who commanded Stirling castle, andafter negotiations recovered power. Atholl was his chiefopponent, but in April 1579 he died suddenly, after dining withMorton; poison was suspected. Morton, with Angus, attackedthe Hamiltons, whose chiefs fled the country, accompanied by theworst of traitors, Sir James Balfour. Knowing all the secrets ofDarnley's murder, Balfour revenged himself by raking upMorton's foreknowledge of the deed; and here he was helpedby the influence exercised over the young king by his cousinEsmé Stuart d'Aubigny (a son of Darnley's paternal uncle,John), who came to Scotland from France in September 1579.D'Aubigny allied himself with Knox's brother-in-law, JamesStewart of the house of Ochiltree, captain of the King's Guards,an able, handsome, learned, but rapacious man. The Hamiltons,now in English exile, were forfeited; d'Aubigny received theearldom of Lennox; and, as after Darnley's death, placards,were posted urging the trial of Morton for that crime. As againstthe new Lennox, Morton was deemed a friend by the preachers,though Lennox professed to be reconciled to the kirk. Throughout1580 Elizabeth encouraged Morton, with her wonted fickletreachery. In October she recalled her ambassador, and leftMorton to his fate. Sir James Balfour secretly returned fromFrance with his information, and Morton was accused andarrested on the last day of 1580. Elizabeth sent old Randolphto threaten and plead, but Lennox and James Stewart were too powerful. Morton was tried on the 1st of June 1581, was foundguilty, and, with one Binning, who had accompanied ArchibaldDouglas to the scene of Darnley's murder, was executed. His titlewent to the Douglases of Lochleven. James Stewart receivedthe Hamilton earldom of Arran, and under him and Lennoxthe young king began his long strife with the kirk and his half-hearteddealings with the Catholics and his mother.

It is impossible here to follow the course of the strife, in whichthe godly were led by the earls of Gowrie and Angus. Gowrieseized James, and power, at Ruthven (August 1582), a stepapproved of by the preachers. In June 1583, James escaped toSt Andrews and was surrounded by his party. In Novemberhe made the son of Lennox, who had died in France, a duke;Arran was again in power, and Melville with other preachers fledto England in 1584, after the execution of Gowrie for hightreason. The king and council were proclaimed judges in allcases; preachers were to submit to their judicature when accusedof political offences, a standing cause of strife.

No longer needing Catholic assistance, James threw over hismother, with whom he had been intriguing, and sent the beautifulMaster of Gray to betray Mary's secrets to Elizabeth. At theend of 1585, all James's exiled foes, Douglases, Hamiltons andothers, returned across the border in force, caught the king atStirling, drove Arran into hiding, restored the Gowrie family,and became the new administration. In 1586, the Babingtonplot was arranged, and discovered by those who had allowedit to be arranged. James practically did nothing to rescue hismother: one of his representatives in England was that ArchibaldDouglas who helped to slay his father.

The execution of Mary on the 8th of February left James “afree king” as far as his mother's claim to the throne wasDeath of Mary.concerned, and he had his pension of £3000 or £4000 fromElizabeth. Thus war between the two countries wasavoided. Thenceforth, till James came to the throneof England, the history of Scotland was but a series of inchoaterevolutions, intrigues that led to nothing definite and skirmishesin the war of kirk and state. The king had to do with preacherswho practically held the doctrines of Becket as to priestlypretensions. James was “Christ's silly vassal,” so AndrewMelville told him, and “Christ” in practice meant the preacherswho possessed the power of the keys, the power to bind and looseon earth and in heaven. The strange thing is that while Elizabethwarned James against the pretensions of men who “wouldhave no king but a presbytery,” whenever he was at odds withthe ministers and with the nobles who kept trying to seize hisperson with the approval of the ministers, Elizabeth secretly oropenly backed the kirk.

The kirk was strong enough to compel James to march, morethan once, against the Catholic earls, Huntly, Errol, Angus andothers. They, again, constantly intrigued with Spain, and therewere moments when James, driven desperate by the preachers,listened to their projects. He was anti-papal by conviction,yet hoped for help from Rome, and was so far implicated inthe adventures of his Catholic subjects that, in the interest ofhis own character, he had to advance against them and drivethem into exile. In 1590 he married Anne of Denmark: in1592 his character suffered through the murder, by Huntly, of“the bonny earl o' Murray,” suspected of favouring the madcapFrancis Stewart, earl of Bothwell (nephew of Queen Mary'sBothwell), a man who made it his business to kidnap the king,and who presently, by the help of Gowrie's widow, seized him inHolyrood. In 1592 parliament “ratified the liberty of the truekirk,” leaving little liberty for king and state, since, in the phraseof one preacher, “the king might be excommunicated in case ofcontumacy and disobedience to the will of God,” as interpretedby the ministers. In the following year (23rd of July 1593)Bothwell, much favoured by the preachers, made his capture ofJames, but had not the power to hold him long, and a laterrevolutionary attempt in the same year, by Atholl and the youngearl of Gowrie, was a failure.

Gowrie went abroad and passed some time at the university ofPadua; to him the eyes of the preachers were hopefully turnedafter 1596. As Bothwell had become a Catholic, they excommunicatedhim in 1595: in 1596 James resolved to recall theexiled Catholic peers; the commissioners of the General Assembly,alarmed and infuriated, met in Edinburgh, ordered a day ofhumiliation, decided to excommunicate the Catholic earls andestablished a kind of revolutionary committee of public safety.James insisted on his own authority; insisted that a secularcourt had a right to try a virulent preacher who declined thesecular jurisdiction when accused of having denounced QueenElizabeth as an atheist. The quarrel waxed: the gatheringssummoned by the preachers were declared to be seditious; ameeting in a church ended in a threatening riot that raged roundthe Tolbooth, where James was sitting, and on the following dayhe with his Court withdrew to Linlithgow (18th of December1596). The Court of Session was also to be removed, and theburgesses, fearing loss of trade, laid down their arms. Theleader of the clerical agitation, Mr Bruce, with a wild preachernamed Balcanquhal, fled to England, and James returned intriumph to his capital on the first of January 1597. He followedup his victory; a General Assembly at Perth was obedient to hiswill: the preachers were forbidden to criticize, from the pulpit,acts of parliament or of the privy council; they were forbiddento call conventions without the royal person or authority andto attack individuals in their sermons.

In the great towns, moreover, ministers might not be appointedto charges without the king's consent, and in this course Jamesadvanced, with but slight opposition, till he put the preachersunder his feet. In a long series of crafty movements Jamesmanaged to reintroduce episcopacy (1598-1600) by the aid ofpacked General Assemblies, later declared void by the Covenanters(1638). He increased Presbyterian emotion by the suspicionthat he was intriguing with Catholic powers, and by his bookon the rights and duties of a king (Basilicon Doran), which fellinto the hands of Andrew Melville. Some cryptic correspondencewith the pope, whether actually by James or by Elphinstone,one of his ministers, came apparently to the knowledge of theEnglish court; his secret relations with the earl of Essex were,if not known, suspected; the young earl of Gowrie, returnedfrom a residence on the continent, was too effusively welcomedby Elizabeth in May 1600; and James made a tactless speechwhen asking parliament for money towards his “honourableentering to the crown of England after the death of the queen.”He was in deep poverty, the Estates were chary of supplies,plotters in Scotland had been offering to Cecil to kidnap the king(1598), and his relations both with the English government andwith his own subdued but struggling preachers were bitterlyunfriendly.

It is not known whether the mysterious events that culminatedin the slaying of the earl of Gowrie and his brother, by JohnGowrie conspiracy.Ramsay, in their own house in Perth, on the 5th ofAugust 1600, had any connexion with James's attitudeto England and the kirk. The most probableexplantation is that Gowrie laid, with the utmost secrecy,a plot to lure James to Perth, kidnap him there, transport himto Fastcastle, a fortress of the profligate and intriguing Logan ofRestalrig, on the Berwickshire coast, and then raise the Presbyterianparty. If we could accept the evidence of a letter attributedto Logan and produced in 1608, this theory would be valid.But the letter has been proved beyond question to be a forgery,though it may very well be a forged copy of a genuine original(see The Gowrie Conspiracy Confessions of George Sprot, byA. Lang, Roxburghe Club, London, 1902). Certainly no plotwas laid by James to entrap the Ruthvens, and the only questionis, was the brawl in which they fell accidental, or had a plothatched in deep secrecy been frustrated by unexpected circ*mstances?(In James VI. and the Gowrie Conspiracy the writerargues in favour of the latter solution.) In any case the scepticismof the Edinburgh ministers, especially of Bruce, encouragedthe tendency of the people to think the worst, and led to thebanishment, followed by other restrictions and sufferings, ofBruce himself. The house of Gowrie, so long hostile to MaryStuart and James, was forfeited and ruined. Charles I. was born just after the trial of the dead Ruthvens (19th of November1600), and his mother was, as ususal, opposed to the king's recentproceedings.

In 1602 Cecil was engaged in dark plots against James; therising of Essex (of which James probably was expectant) hadJames becomes king of England.failed; but by the end of the year Cecil had enteredinto a secret understanding with James to favour hisclaims to the English succession. Elizabeth's lastletter to the king was of the 5th of January 1603;she died in the earliest hour of the 1st of April, and James, lateon the 3rd of April, had the news from Carey. He enteredLondon on the 6th of May, whence he henceforth, as he said,governed Scotland “by the pen.” Entirely safe from the usualturbulent movements of Scottish opposition, and but ill acquaintedwith Scottish opinion, he could dictate measures whichwere oppressive to the preachers and unwelcome to the majorityof the laity. He kept the kirk for two or three years without aGeneral Assembly, to which they had a legal right, and (with atleast a shadow of legal right) he proclaimed unlawful the assemblyof Aberdeen (1605). Though the recalcitrants who held it werepunished, James's own officials saw that he had gone too far.His bishops were already becoming odious to his nobles; hisprorogation of General Assemblies continued, and the brothersMelville, called to England, were treated with unconstitutionalharshness. Andrew, who behaved with injudicious violence,was banished to France, James to Newcastle; other preacherswere confined to their parishes; and by a mixture of chicanery(as at the pseudo assembly of Linlithgow) and of violence, theking established his tottering episcopacy, and sowed the dragon'steeth of civil war. Catholics were equally or more severelypersecuted; and though the Borderers were brought intotranquillity, it was by measures of indiscriminate severity.

A scheme for complete union of England and Scotland, promotedby James and by Francis Bacon, was unwelcome to andrejected by the two jealous countries (1604-1606). But Postnati,subjects born in Scotland after James's accession to theEnglish throne, were allowed to purchase and hold real property,and “to bring real actions for the same,” in England (1608).

In 1610 James had three Scottish bishops consecrated by threeEnglish bishops, ensuring for the northern country apostolicsuccession; and justices of the peace were created in Scotland.The “plantation” of Ulster by Scottish colonists was begunand flourished. Catholics were more and more persecuted,and in 1615 Father Ogilvie was executed, after abominablycruel treatment in which Spotiswoode, archbishop of Glasgow,took an unworthy share. In the same year the king's “Courtsof High Commission” were consolidated, and an organ wasactually placed in the royal chapel at Holyrood.

In 1617 James visited his native land: ecclesiastical brawlsat once broke out, and James vigorously pushed, in face of thedisfavour even of his bishops, the acceptance of his famous FiveArticles. They were accepted at Perth, in 1618, but were evadedwherever evasion was possible. Communicants were to kneel,not to sit, a thing that had, of all others, been odious to JohnKnox; Easter was to be observed, also Christmas, contrary toearnest consciences; confirmation was introduced; the Communionmight be administered to the dying in their houses;and baptism must be on the first Sunday after the child's birth.These articles, harmless as they may seem to us, were the laststraw that Scottish loyalty could bear. In 1621, they werecarried in parliament by a fair majority; to the horror andbitter indignation of all men and women of the old leaven.Worse, the English liturgy was used in a college chapel of StAndrews on the 15th of January 1623. James tried to suppressthe general irritation by a proclamation against conventicles,and a threat to take away the courts of law from Edinburgh,if people did not go to church on Christmas day. He postponedthe threat till Easter 1625, but, says Calderwood, “The Lordremoved him out of the way fourteen days before the EasterCommunion.” He died on the 27th of March. Encouraged bysafety and adulation in England; grasping at the Tudor idealof kingship, determined to reduce to order the kirk from whichhe had suffered so many injuries and insults, he sowed the windand his son reaped the whirlwind.

Only the chief moments in the struggle between Charles I.and the Scots can be touched on in this summary. James VI.Charles I.had succeeded in his struggle with the preacherspartly by satisfying the nobles with gifts out of oldchurch lands. Charles I. reunited the kirk and the nobles bythreatening, or seeming to threaten, to resume or impair thesegifts, and also by his favour towards the universally detestedbishops (1625-1629). Mr S. R. Gardiner speaks of the finalshape of Charles's measure as “a wise and beneficent reform”;and he did aim at recovering the “teinds” or tithes, and securingsomething like a satisfactory sustenance for ministers. But hehad caused alarm, and he refused all demands for the withdrawalof the loathed articles of Perth. The younger bishops too werenot “sound” in Calvinism; many were looked on as Arminians.Protests were uttered in 1633, when Charles entered Edinburghand held a parliament. Above all, and most legitimately, therevival of General Assemblies, now long discussed, was demandedvainly.

By 1636, Charles and Laud had decided to introduce a liturgy,a slightly, but in Scottish apprehensions “idolatrously,” modifiedversion of the Anglican prayer-book. Anglicanism was a limbof Antichrist; extempore prayers were regarded as inspired:a liturgy was “a Mass-book.” The procedure was purelydespotic, and at the first attempt to use the liturgy in St Giles'sthere broke out the famous “Jenny Geddes” riot in the church(23rd of July 1637). The nobles of the country, the ministersand lairds, met in Edinburgh and sent a petition against theliturgy to Charles. In November were formed “The Tables,”a standing revolutionary committee of all Estates.

Constant meetings hurled protestations against the bishops;no man was more active than the young Montrose. In FebruaryThe Covenanters.1638 the Covenant, practically a “band” of thewhole country, enforced on reluctant signers, waslaunched. It made Scotland, like Israel, “a covenantedpeople” for the defence and propagation of the old Presbyterianismof Andrew Melville, and many devotees held that it was forever binding on the nation. Legists differ as to whether theband was legal or not, but revolutions make their own laws,and the Covenant could not be more illegal than the imposureof the liturgy. Charles drove on the bishops, who better understoodthe situation, and he sent the half-hearted Hamilton tonegotiate and threaten in Edinburgh, where the Covenanterswere blockading the castle. But Charles did grant a GeneralAssembly in Glasgow (21st of November), where, among unseemlyuproar, the ecclesiastical legislation of James I. was rescinded,the law and custom of forty years were abolished, conformistclerics were expelled, and the earl of Argyll appeared as leaderof the extreme party, while Montrose was the general of thearmed Covenanters. In 1639 he was as active in arms in the northas Hamilton, on the king's side, was dilatory and helpless in thesouth. By May the chief clerical leader, Henderson of Leuchars,was denouncing Royalists as “Amalekites,” and by biblicalprecedent Amalekites receive no quarter. Prelacy was “Baalworship,” and the kirk thus turned the strife in the direction ofreligious ferocity.

While Charles hung irresolute on the eastern border, theCovenanters, under Alexander Leslie, took heart, occupiedDuns Law, and terrified Charles into negotiations (11th-18thJune). A hollow pacification was made: the assembly of August1639 imposed the signing of the Covenant on all Scotsmen. Aparliament (31st of August) demanded the loss of votes (fourteen)by bishops, and freedom of debate on bills formed by the Lordsof the Articles, who had practically held all power; while Argyllcarried a bill demanding for each estate the right to select itsown representatives among these lords. Traquhair, as royalcommissioner, prorogued parliament; negotiations with the kingin London had no result; and in 1640 the prorogation wascontemned, and though opposed by Montrose, the parliamentconstituted itself, with no royal warrant. War was at hand,but Montrose formed a party by “the band of Cumbernauld,” to suppress the practical dictatorship of his rival and enemy,Argyll, who, he understood, was to be one of a triumvirate,and absolute north of Forth. Argyll allowed the committeeof Estates to rule, as before, and bided his time. On the 20th ofAugust Montrose was the first of the Covenanting army to crossthe Tweed; Newcastle was seized, and Charles, unsupportedby England, entered on the course of the Long Parliament andthe slaying of Stratford. In Scotland the secret of the Cumbernauldband came out; Montrose, Napier and other friends wereimprisoned on the strength of certain ambiguous messages toCharles, and on the 27th of July, being called before parliament,Montrose said—“My resolution is to carry with me honourand fidelity to the grave.” Montrose kept his word, whileHamilton stooped to sign the Covenant. Montrose lay in prisonwhile Charles I. visited Scotland and met the parliament,The “Incident”perturbed by the dim and unintelligible plot called“The Incident” (October 1641), which seems to haveaimed at seizing the persons of Argyll, Hamiltonand his brother Lanark. All that is known of Montrose, in thismatter, is that from prison he had written thrice to Charles,and that Charles had intended to show his third letter to Argyll,Hamilton and Lanark, on the very day when they, suspectinga plot, retired into the country (12th of October). An agitatedinquiry which only found contradictory evidence was disturbedby the news of the Irish rebellion (28th of October). Charlesheaped honours on his opponents (Argyll was the one marquis ofhis name), and hastened to England. The country was governedby fifty-six members of the Estate and by the dreaded commissionof the General Assembly, for now the kirk dominated Scotland,denying even the right of petition to the lieges.

The English parliament, at war with the king, demanded aidfrom Scotland; it was granted under the conditions of theThe Great Rebellion.Solemn League and Covenant (1643), by which theCovenanters expected to secure the establishment ofPresbyterianism in England, though the terms ofa*greement are dubious. Scotland, however, regarded herself asbound to war against “Sectaries,” and so came into collisionwith Cromwell, to her undoing. In January 1644, a Scottisharmy crossed Tweed, to aid the parliament, with preachers toattend the synod of Westminster. Already some 2000 men fromIreland, mainly of Macdonalds and other clans driven into Irelandby the Argylls, were being dispatched to the west Highlandcoast. Lanark, from Oxford, fled to join the Covenanters;Charles imprisoned Hamilton in Cornwall; Montrose was madea marquis; Leslie, with a large Scottish force and 4000 horse,besieged Newcastle. Montrose arrived a day too late for MarstonMoor (and of July 1644); Rupert took his contingent; he enteredScotland in disguise, met the ill-armed Irish levies under Colkitto,raised the Gordons and Ogilvies, who supplied his cavalry,raised the fighting Macdonalds, Camerons and Macleans; insix pitched battles he routed Argyll and all the Covenantingwarriors of Scotland, and then, deserted by Colkitto and theGordons, and surprised by Leslie's cavalry withdrawn fromEngland, was defeated at Philiphaugh near Selkirk, while menand women of his Irish contingent were shot or hanged monthsafter the battle.

The clamour of the preachers was now for blood, and gentlementaken under promise of quarter were executed by command ofthe Estates at St Andrews, for to give quarter was “to violatethe oath of the Covenant”—as interpreted by the clergy. Itwould have been wiser to put the revenges as reprisals for theundeniable horrors committed by Montrose's Irish levies. Thesurrender of Charles to the Scots, the surrender by the Scots ofCharles to the English, for £200,000 of arrears of pay, with hopesof another £200,000 (February 1647), were among the consequencesof Montrose's defeat. But the surrender of the kingfestered in Scottish consciences; for the country was far fromacquiescing in the transaction.

Leslie, by the advice of one Nevoy, a preacher, massacred, onhis return to Scotland, the Macdonalds in Dunaverty castle.A strife arose between Hamilton, who wished to disband theCovenanting army, and Argyll, and gradually the struggle wasbetween Hamilton and the sympathizers with the imprisoned kingand Argyll at the head of (or under the heels of) the more fanaticalpreachers and Presbyterians. The Scottish commissioners inEngland, with Lauderdale, and with the approval of Hamilton'sfaction, signed, at the end of 1647, “The Engagement” withCharles, and broke away from the tyranny of the preachers.The Engagers had the majority in parliament, but were franticallycursed from the pulpits; they and their army mustered for thedeliverance of their king. In August 1648, they crossed theborder, leaving the fanatics to arm in their rear, but Cromwell,by a rapid march across the fells, caught and utterly routed themat Preston and on the line of the Ribble, taking captive theinfantry and Hamilton, who was sent to the block.

This was the kirk's proudest triumph; the countrymen of thepreachers had been ruined on “St Covenant's Day.” TheExecution of Charles I.preachers, with Lords Loudoun and Eglintoun, Argylland Cassilis, armed and raised the godly, and occupiedEdinburgh. The parliamentary committee capitulatedwith the extremists, who sent friendly messages toCromwell, and Argyll met him on the Tweed. Thence Cromwellsent Lambert with seven regiments to Edinburgh, where hehimself stayed for some time. A parliament in Argy1l's and thepreachers' interest met there in January 1649; only sixteennobles were present, as against fifty-six in the previous year.The execution of Charles I. (30th of January 1649) left theextreme party in a quandary. How could they keep terms with“bloody Sectaries” that had slain their king, in face of theprotests of their envoys? They did pass the Act of the Classes,disabling all “Engagers” from all manner of offices, militaryand civil, and dividing the distracted country into two hostilecamps. On the 5th of February Charles II. was proclaimed kingin Edinburgh, if he took the two Covenants. This meant waragainst England, and war in which the Engagers and Royalistscould not take part. The situation developed into ruin underthe strife of the wilder and the gentler preachers.

Communications with Charles II. at the Hague were opened,and the Scots accused the English of breach of the Solemn LeagueDeath of Montrose.and Covenant. Huntly, as a Royalist, was decapitatedat Edinburgh; and the envoys of Charles, thanks tothe advice of Montrose, failed to induce him to stamphimself a recreant and a hypocrite by signing any covenants.But Montrose (January 1650) was sent by Charles to “search hisdeath,” as he said, in an expedition to the north of Scotland,while, in the absence of his stainless servant, Charles actuallysigned the treaty of Breda (1st of May). In April Montrosewas abandoned by his royal master, and was defeated atCarbiesdale, on the south side of the kyle, or estuary, ofShin and Oykel; he was betrayed, insulted, bullied by thepreachers, and, going to his death like a bridegroom to the altar,was hanged at Edinburgh, on the 20th of May. “Great in life,Montrose was yet greater in his death.” He had kept his word,he had “carried fidelity and honour to the grave” (Gardiner).His head was set on a spike and his quartered limbs were exposedin various places.

Charles came to Scotland; he signed the Covenants, while histormentors well and duly knew that the action was a baseRoyalist cause in Scotland.hypocrisy, that they had tempted him to perjury.Cromwell, who now crossed the border, impressed thistruth, as far as he might, on the preachers, who madeCharles sign declarations yet more degrading, to the discreditof his father and mother. Meanwhile David Leslie, withsingularly excellent strategy, foiled and evaded Cromwell inthe neighbourhood of Edinburgh, till the great cavalry leaderwas forced to retreat towards England. At Dunbar Leslie heldCromwell in the hollow of his hand, but his army had beenrepeatedly “purged” of all Royalist men of the sword by thepreachers; they are said, and Cromwell believed it, to haveconstrained Leslie to leave his impregnable position and attackon the lower levels. Leslie appears to have intended a surprise,as at Philiphaugh, but “through our own laziness,” he confesses,the surprise came from Cromwell's side, and few of the Scotsexcept the mounted gentry escaped from the crushing defeat at Dunbar (3rd of September). Of the prisoners an unknownnumber died of hunger in Durham cathedral, others were soldto slavery in the colonies.

Cromwell had occupied the country south of the Forth, whileArgyll was Charles's master, extorting hard terms from theprisoner, who once ran away. The committee of Estates, onhard terms, gave an indemnity to Royalists whose swords theyneeded; many ministers acquiesced (“The Resolutioners”),the more fanatical dissidents were called “Remonstrants,”and now the kirk was rent in twain by the disputes of these twofactions. The Remonstrants, clerical and military (Guthrie andStrachan), would not support Charles while he was not “underconviction,” and Strachan was excommunicated by the Resolutioners.On the 20th of July 1651 Lambert defeated the Royalistsat Inverkeithing; Forth no longer bridled Cromwell; Lesliewas sure to be outflanked, and, with Charles, he evaded Cromwell,marched into the heart of England (unaccompanied by Argyll),and was defeated and taken, while Charles made a marvellousescape at Worcester (3rd of September 1651).

The conquest of Scotland was soon completed; at last shelay at an English victor's feet; the General Assembly wasThe Restoration.turned out into the street by “some rats of Musketeersand a troup of horse,” and the risings of Glencairn,Lorne (eldest son of Argyll) and others in the highlandswere easily crushed. Argyll, deserted and detested,compromised himself by letters to Monk, containing intelligenceas to the movements of the Royalists. While the rival bandsof preachers squabbled, Cromwell, like Edward I., arrangedthat Scottish members should sit in Westminster, and, commercially,as in the administration of fair justice, and the peaceof the country, Scotland prospered under English rule. ButMonk withdrew his force to London in January 1660, andhurrying events brought the joyous Restoration of the 29thof May.

The festivities in Scotland were exuberant, but it was impossiblethat tranquillity should be restored. The Remonstrants,that is, the clerical fanatics to whom toleration was more especiallyabominable, are reckoned (Hume Brown) as the majorityof the preachers, but exact statistics cannot be obtained. Intheir eyes, as Charles had taken both Covenants, he was boundto remain a Presbyterian and to establish Presbyterianism inEngland, a thing impossible and entailing civil war in theattempt. Even the representatives of the Resolutioners urgedCharles not to use the Anglican service, though they confidedto Sharp, their agent in London, their opinion that, if the Remonstrants(or Protesters) had any hand in affairs, “it cannotbut breed continual distemper and disorders.” Suppose thatthe kirk was restored by Charles to her position in 1592, withGeneral Assemblies. With the violent party in a majority,refusing the jurisdiction of the state, insisting on the establishmentof Presbyterianism in England, excommunicating andscolding, Scotland would be as much disturbed as in the daysof Andrew Melville. “Neither fair nor other means are likelyto do with them” (the fanatics), says Baillie, principal ofGlasgow University, himself a Covenanter from the beginning.He wished to banish the Remonstrants to Orkney.

Historians do not usually seem to perceive that Charles wasfaced by the old quarrel of church and state, in which “fairmeans ” were seen to be unavailing, while “unfair means”only succeeded, after some thirty years, in breaking down theold Presbyterian spirit so much that, after 1688, the state couldhold her own. Charles, without first summoning the Estates,named his own privy council and ministers, of whom Lauderdale,long a Covenanter, came presently to be governor of Scotland.As Argyll, in face of all warnings, went to court, he was arrested,and during the session of parliament of January 1661 was triedfor treason, and, on the ground of his letters to Monk, wasconvicted and executed, as was the leading Remonstrant preacher,James Guthrie, accused of holding an illegal conventicle, “tendingto disturbance, . . . and, if possible, rekindling a civil war.”

The history of the country during the Restoration falls naturallyinto four periods.

I. In the first (1660-1663) the royal commissioner toparliament was the earl of Middleton, a soldier of fortune whoFour periods during the Restoration.had been in arms for the Crown as late as 1655, whohad been excommunicated by the kirk, and wasdetermined to keep down the preachers. With himwere the Cavalier party, anxious to recover theirlosses during the civil war. All were impoverished,and greed was the dominant motive of the members of theprivy council, the rulers of the country. Meanwhile, in London,the earl of Lauderdale, once a fervent Covenanter, was secretaryfor Scotland, had the king's ear, and would have restored presbytery,at least by way of experiment. The “creature” of Charles,as he called himself, this burly, violent scholar, buffoon andbully, was reckoned a patriot. As an “Engager” he had seenhis country conquered by English arms. His policy was tokeep Scotland in good humour by restoring presbytery; toraise in the country a militia strong enough to support Charlesagainst the English parliament, and thus, in both countries,to make the royal prerogative absolute. The first parliament(1661-1663), under Middleton, was obsequious enough to grantthe king £40,000 annually, to abolish the covenants and torescind all but the private legislation of the revolutionaryyears (1638-1660). The Lords of the Articles were restored,mere nominees of government. Middleton, Tarbat and Clarendonovercame Charles's reluctance to restore episcopacy;Lauderdale fell into the background; The Rev. James Sharp,hitherto the agent of the Resolutioners, or milder party amongthe preachers, turned his coat, and took the archbishopric ofSt Andrews. Episcopacy being restored, some three or fourhundred preachers were driven from their parishes (1663).“We made a waste,” said Archbishop Leighton, “and stockedit with owls and satyrs,” the detested “curates.” The ShorterCatechism was taught; the liturgy was not brought in; thesole change was in kirk government.

Meanwhile the Cavalier party invented a system of heavilyfining men who had been their opponents in the troubles. Middletoncoveted the estates of the earl of Argyll, son of the latemarquis, and on a trumped-up charge of “leasing making”(he had spoken in a private letter of “the tricks of parliament”)had him condemned to death. He was saved by the exertionsof Lauderdale, and Tarbat suggested, while Middleton adopted,a scheme for ostracizing, and making incapable of office, twelveof their opponents, including Lauderdale. But Lauderdale hadthe skill to turn the cards on Middleton, accusing him of trickingboth parliament and king, and of usurping royal prerogative.Middleton and Tarbat were cashiered, and the able but profligateearl of Rothes united four or five of the highest offices in hisown person, Lauderdale remaining at court as secretary forScotland.

II. We come now to the years from 1664 to 1667. Middleton,with Archbishop Sharp, misgoverned the country, establisheda high court of commission, exiled the fiercest preachers toHolland, whence they worked endless mischief by agitation anda war of pamphlets; irritated the Covenanting shires, Fife andthe south-west, by quartering troops on them to exact finesfor Nonconformity, and so caused, during a war with Holland,the Pentland Rising (November 1666). This unconverted movementarose out of an act of cruelty by soldiers in the remoteGlenkens, and was unsupported by Holland, with which theCovenanters had been intriguing. Crushed at Rullion Greenin the Pentlands, by General Dalziel, this movement left thePresbyterians the more angry, by reason of the cruelty of itssuppression, and the use of torture to extract information fromMackail, a preacher, and Neilson of Corsack, a laird.

III. Lauderdale again saw his chance; Rothes was deprivedof all offices save the chancellorship; Sharp was “snibbed”and disgraced, attempts at concession were begun, and theindulgence of 1669 licensed a number of Presbyterian ministers,under restrictions. The indulgence accentuated the divisionbetween those who accepted and those who rejected it. Outrageson conformist ministers were frequent, and conventicleswere accompanied by armed men. A popular book, Jus Populi Vindicatum (1669), demanded the restoration of the covenants,which meant civil war, the hanging of the bishops, and evenapplauded assassination by men who had “a call,” like Phinehas.In a parliament with Lauderdale as commissioner (1669-1673)“clanking acts” were passed against nonconformity, but thelaws were too severe to be executed, save spasmodically, andwere followed by a second indulgence (1672). Lauderdalehaving married the rapacious countess of Dysart, corruptionwas rife; his brother, Haltoun, was an example of recklessgreed; opposition arose to a scheme of union, presently dropped,and by 1673 the duke of Hamilton and Sir George Mackenzieled an organized political opposition. Lauderdale's MilitiaAct gave Charles a force of 22,000 men, who would “go anywhere” (that is, would invade England), at the king's command,and in 1673-1675 Lauderdale was attacked in the EnglishHouse of Commons. Charles stood by him, but his best allies,Kincardine and Sir Robert Murray, deserted him, while SirGeorge Mackenzie of Rosehaugh came over to his party, becameking's advocate (1677), and till 1686 was the Achitophel andpublic prosecutor of the government. After an alleged attemptto negotiate through Argyll (1678) with the preachers, in viewof the threatening increase of armed conventicles, Lauderdaleresolved on suppression. Without money, and without anythinglike an adequate regular force, he called out the clansmenof Atholl, Perth and other nobles, and quartered “the Highlandhost” on the disturbed districts. He would either put themdown, or, what he preferred, bring rebellion to a head. Thegentry, who had proclaimed their inability to suppress conventicles,were ordered to sign a bond making them responsiblefor their tenants, and were bound over to keep the king's peaceby “law burrows,” a method common in private life but unheardof between monarch and people. After six weeks theplundering clansmen were withdrawn, and in the spring of1678, also of 1679, Hamilton with his allies carried their complaintsto Charles. Mackenzie, in a controversy at Windsor(1679), proved to Charles that in Scotland he was as absoluteas the kings of France and Spain, over church, state and allhis subjects, and indeed, by various acts of James VI. and ofhis own reign, Charles really was a despot (British Museum,Additional MSS. 23,244, pp. 20-28).

Meanwhile, armed conventicles abounded, and the extremefaction openly denounced and separated themselves from therapidly growing mass of the Indulged. Early in May 1679Sharp was hacked to death on Magus Moor near St Andrews.The murderers rode to the west, joined the company of RobertHamilton, defeated Graham of Claverhouse with a small forceof horse at Drumclog, occupied Glasgow, and proved the totalinability of the regular forces to cope with a rising. Charlesmight have been unable, in the frenzy of the popish plot ofTitus Oates, to send forces from England, but as he chose thepopular Protestant, the duke of Monmouth, to command them,he was allowed to despatch some regiments. The rebels, whowere in two hostile parties, Indulged and Separatists, failed tohold Bothwell Bridge, and were easily routed. The duke ofYork was sent, in honourable banishment, to Scotland, andin the parliament of 1681 was royal commissioner.

IV. Here begins the fourth period (1680-1688), the dominationof the duke, Queensberry, Perth, and his brother, Drummondof Lundin (earl of Melfort). Lauderdale was out of favour,and died. Now “by concession” (a third indulgence) “andrepression, the once mighty force of Scottish Presbyterianismhad at length been broken” (Hume Brown). By “Presbyterianism”we are here to understand, not the Presbyterianform of church government—the kirk whose motto is Nectamen consumebatur—but the pretensions of preachers to dominatethe state by the mythical “power of the keys,” by excommunicationwith civil penalties and by the fiercest religiousintolerance. Presbyterianism can exist and flourish withoutthese survivals of the proudest pretensions of Romanism. Toquote Dr Hume Brown again, “When the absolutism of theStuarts was succeeded by a more rational government (1689),the example of the Indulged ministers, who composed the greatmass of the Presbyterian clergy, was of the most potent effectin substituting the idea of toleration for that of the religiousabsolutism of Knox and Melville.” Save for the fact that theministers were as intolerant as ever of Nonconformists,Catholics and heretics, this is a just view, but Charles II. hadto deal with a kirk in which the Remonstrants, the more fanaticalministers, were potent, whether the majority or not, while, after1689, government found “the once mighty force of Presbyterianismbroken.” It was broken by the two last Stuart kings,who employed methods the most brutal and repulsive for thecrushing of consciences trained in the theocratic ideas of Knoxand Melville. The memory of the courage and devotion withwhich men, women and even children faced torture, death andruin for an ideal impossible and undesirable is dear to theScottish people.

On the side of the extremists, Cameron was happy enoughto die in fair fight at Airs Moss (22nd of July 1680), after publiclydisowning the king for his breach of the Covenant. Cargillnext excommunicated the king, Dalziel and Mackenzie, and hisfollowers separated themselves from “the ordinances dispensedby any Presbyterian minister.” The followers of these twomen, and of their successor, Renwick, who later was hanged,became the armed and organized “Societies,” a large forceof yeomen and farmers in south-western Scotland, usually styledCameronians. After the Revolution, the government left themalone, and could afford to do so.

In 1681, parliament, under the duke of York as commissioner,passed a test act so drafted that no human being could honestlyand logically take the test. The earl of Argyll, son of the marquis,added a qualifying clause; he would take the test, “as far asit was consistent with itself.” By the influence of his countlesscreditors, who desired to be paid out of his estates, and inrevenge for his seizure, on claims for debts, of the whole estatesof clan Maclean (1674-1680), he was tried and was actuallyfound guilty of treason. He escaped, but was condemned onthe old charge after his later invasion of Scotland (1685).

In 1684, while Perth, and his brother, Melfort, who wentover to Rome, were in power, Renwick emitted an “ApologeticalDeclaration,” in which the active enemies of his sectwere threatened with secret trials and with assassination(October), and a “curate,” with some soldiers, was murdered.This, coming on the head of the Rye House murder plot (of whichthe Rev. Mr Carstairs, the agent of Argyll, and probably Argyllhimself, then in Holland, were not ignorant), caused the governmentto demand, at the hands of the military, from all andsundry, an “Abjuration” of Renwick's anarchist utterances.Recusants were shot. The test was carefully framed so as toinclude no disavowal of religious principles, and was “universallyunscrupled, even by the generality of great professors andministers too,” says Sheilds, an advanced extremist. However,the peasantry found, in the abjuration, matter contrary to theirconsciences, and while some recusants were shot out of hand,a girl named Margaret Wilson, with an old Woman, MargaretMacLauchlan, were tied to stakes and drowned by the incomingtide, near Wigtown (13th of May 1685). How thepenalty came to be inflicted, as the pair had what Wodrow calls“a material pardon,” while there is no record of the withdrawalof the reprieve, remains a mystery. The guilt appears to attachto the local authorities at Wigtown.

In this cruel affair, Claverhouse, who caused to be shot thecelebrated John Brown, “the Christian carrier,” had no hand.To quote Dr Hume Brown, Claverhouse “kept strictly withinthe limits of his commission, and he carried out his orders withthe distinct aim of saving blood in the end. To those who hethought had been led astray, it was his policy not to be unmerciful;for, in his own words, ‘it renders three desperatewhere it gains one.’ On the other hand, in the case of theobdurate, he showed a relentless precision, which gained forhim his evil name, ‘The Bloody Clavers,’ the commissionedservant of the powers of darkness.” As constable of Dundeehe secured the commutation of the death penalty on minoroffenders under his jurisdiction, and his expressed maxim was “in the greatest crimes it is thought wisest to pardon themultitude and punish the ringleaders.” It is no exaggerationto say that, of the governors of Scotland under the Restoration,Claverhouse was the ablest, the most honourable, the leastrapacious and even the most clement. But “Bluidy Claverhouse”will continue to enjoy his traditional reputation inpopular tracts and popular histories.

Charles II. had died on the 2nd of February 1685, and therewere in Scotland some who wept for him. The year of hisdeath was, par excellence, “The Killing Time,” thanks to Renwickand his associates and the Rye House plotters. Now, too,came the attempts of Monmouth and of Argyll, who, owing todivided counsels in his camp, and want of support either fromhis clan or from the southern malcontents, failed in his invasionof Scotland, was taken, and was executed, suffering like hisfather with great courage and dignity. Many recusants werepenned up, starved and cruelly treated, even tortured whenthey attempted escape, in the vaults of Dunottar Castle.

In 1686 James claimed and used the dispensing power as topenal laws against Catholics, in face of the opposition of two of theRevolution of 1688.Scottish bishops (who were ejected from their sees)and of parliament. Mackenzie, for his opposition, lostoffice. The privy council was opened to Catholics, buton the landing of William III. the populace, in 1688, wrecked thechapel of Holyrood and began to “rabble” conformist ministers,or “curates.” Of the guard that defended Holyrood “the gentlemenand the rabble, when they saw all danger over, killed someand put the rest in prison, where many of them died of theirwounds and hunger,” a parallel to the Dunottar cruelties notusually mentioned by historians (“Balcarres Memoirs”). AConvention of Estates, without a royal commissioner, met atEdinburgh on the 14th of March 1689, and it is curious thatWilliamites and Jacobites were not unequally represented. Forpresident, Hamilton, who had been in opposition from 1673 to1682, was preferred to Atholl by a small majority, but it soonappeared that William's friends were in the ascendant.

Claverhouse, now Viscount Dundee, despairing of his party,and under apprehension of an attack in arms, rode northwardKilliecrankie.with a handful of horse, and began to play the part ofMontrose, while the Convention offered the crownto William and Mary, adding the claim of right to dethronea king who had infringed the laws. In May, William,in London, took the coronation oath, but firmly refused to accept,except in some sense of his own not easily understood, the clause,“to be careful to root out all heretics.” The castle of Edinburghwas surrendered by Gordon, and Balcarres was put in that prisonwhere, according to legend, he was visited by the Wraith ofDundee, on the night of the battle of Killiecrankie. WhileDundee was raising the clans and outmanœuvring Mackay,a party in parliament was agitating for constitutional reforms,and especially for freedom from the Lords of the Articles.William opposed, and party war was furious, when news came ofDundee's complete victory at Killiecrankie. The terror of theWhigs turned to joy when they heard that Dundee himself hadfallen in the arms of victory. Two murderers had been sentby the earl of Nottingham to “seize,” that is to despatch,Dundee. They left London for Mackay's camp on the 19th ofJuly. On the 27th of July Dundee was shot, and on the 21st ofOctober Nottingham wrote that his emissaries “had done verygood service to the King” (State Papers, “Domestic,” July 17th,18th, 19th, October 21st, 1689). Henceforth, for lack of acommander of Dundee's genius, there was no real danger fromthe clans, and absolutely no chance of a rising of the lowlandJacobites in their support. At Dunkeld the newly raisedCameronian regiment successfully repulsed the highlanders, ill ledby General Cannon as they were. They were never againdangerous at this period, were scattered by Livingstone in asurprise at Cromdale haughs, and government began to attemptto buy from chiefs the peace of the clans.

Meanwhile complex intrigues occurred, and were betrayed,between “the Club” (the advanced constitutionalists) and theJacobites. In 1690 an act restored the kirk to the legal positionof 1592, under sixty of the surviving ministers deprived in 1661.An act abolished civil penalties upon sentences of excommunication,and thus broke the terrible weapon which the preachers hadwielded so long. Nothing was said about the eternally bindingCovenant, which continued to be the fetish of the Cameroniansand of later seceders. The General Assemblies, henceforth, underthe influence of the diplomatic Carstairs (who had been cruellytortured in 1684, to extract information about the Rye HousePlot), did little to thwart government, though many “placedministers” were, at heart, attached to the ancient claims ofKnox and Melville. Laws as to patronage, an inflammatoryquestion, were made, abolished and remade, causing, from about1730 onwards, passions which exploded in the great Disruptionof 1842. The dealings with the clans culminated in the massacreMassacre of Glencoeof the MacIans of Glencoe (13th February 1692).Through military inefficiency the hill passes were notstopped, and the murders of a peaceful and hospitablepopulation were relatively few. That Dalrymplearranged for actual extermination of the males of the clan iscertain, but there is no proof that he knew of the modus operandi,the betrayal of hospitality, “murder under trust.” It is conceivablethat William signed the orders under the impression thata “punitive expedition” of the ordinary sort was alone intended,but remonstrance from the Estates brought no punishment onany man except the dismissal, later, of Dalrymple (ViscountStair) from office.

In 1693-1694 the kirk was much irritated by William's demandsfor oaths of allegiance to himself, without the consentof the ecclesiastical courts. William gave way, but similarHanoverian demands later caused great searching of heart anddivisions among the preachers. The Episcopal party among theministers was excluded from a share in church government andtended to dwindle; the bishops had no territorial sees; andgradually Episcopalians came to be Jacobites, professing astrange loyalty to James, who had treated them so unjustly,and later to his son, “James VIII., ” the Chevalier de St George(b. June 10, 1688).

Since the Cromwellian occupation the interest of Scottishmen had slowly shifted from religion to commerce; but a tariffDarien Scheme.war between England and Scotland had checkedmanufacturing and other enterprises. One WilliamPaterson, instrumental in founding the Bank ofEngland, conceived the plan of a Scottish East India Company,which, in 1695, obtained a patent by act of parliament. Williamcomplained, later, that he had no notice of the terms of thatpatent till after it was passed (he was fighting under Namur atthe time), and the act not unnaturally aroused the jealousy ofthe rival English companies. It committed William to conditionswhich might readily produce a great naval war with Spain, forPaterson's real design was to establish an entrepôt in Panama,at Darien, within the undeniable sphere of Spanish influence.The Scots invested very largely, for them, but their expeditionswere ill-found and worse managed; the Spaniards seized one oftheir vessels with its crew; the colonists deserted the colony; afresh expedition was expelled by Spain, and William refused totake up the Scottish quarrel (1695-1700). The losses and theapparent injustice caused a frenzy of excitement in Scotland,and William could only express his regret and his desire for anincorporating Union of the two kingdoms. He died on the 7thof March, when the project of Union was to be debated by theEnglish parliament. Under William, Scotland was a constitutionalcountry; the absolute despotism enjoyed by Charles II.ceased to be; a free debating parliament existed, and torturewas inflicted only by decree of king and parliament. It wasabolished two years after the Union of 1707.

Anne, from the beginning of her reign, advocated union,which, with the question of the succession, was the subject ofThe Union.constant and furious debates in the Scots parliament,till, on the 4th of March 1707, the act received theroyal assent. Scotland was to have forty-five membersand sixteen elected peers at Westminster; the holders of Darienstock were compensated; as a balance to equality of taxation a pecuniary equivalent was to be paid, the kirk and Scottish courtsof justice were safeguarded (final appeal being to the BritishHouse of Lords), and Scots shared English facilities and privilegesof trade, in name, for many years passed before Scotland reallybegan to enjoy the benefits. Mar, Queensberry, Stair (of Glencoe)and Argyll (Red John of the Battles) were the leading statesmenof the Unionist party; being opposed by Hamilton, Atholl andLockhart of Carnwath as Jacobites; by Fletcher of Saltoun asan independent patriot; by popular sentiment, by mob violence,and by many of the preachers, though not by the GeneralAssembly. Every sentimental consideration was against aunion with a prelatic kingdom, “an auld enemy,” which drovea hard bargain by threats of excluding Scottish commodities.The negotiations were constantly disturbed by Jacobite intrigueswith France in favour of James VIII.; by Scottish adherenceto the Act of Security, which might give Scotland a king otherthan a Hanoverian in succession to Anne; and by the hangingof an Englishman, Captain Green, for piracy on a lost Scottishvessel (1705). The final debates of 1706 were conducted underapprehensions of an invasion of Edinburgh by highlanders andwild western fanatics of the Covenant; but the astuteness ofHarley's agent in Edinburgh, de Foe, the resolution of Argylland the tact of Queensberry, who easily terrified the duke ofHamilton, carried the measure into haven. The Union was atfirst rich in causes of friction, and in nothing else; even as lateas 1745 it was most unpopular, but Scotland had no choice.The nation would never accept a Catholic king, a Stuart, norrevert, as against England, to the ancient French alliance.The religious objection was insuperable; opportunities of commercialdevelopment were indispensable; war with Englandwas not to be contemplated by the common sense of the country;and thus, as de Foe wrote, “The Union was merely formed bythe nature of things.” In Lockhart's words, the 30th of April1707 “was the last day that Scotland was Scotland. I maylament and weep,” he adds, “but truly I have had admirablesport,” with his greyhounds.

Friction about matters of trade was the instant sequel of theUnion: so much ill-feeling was provoked that, in the generalJacobite failures.opinion, had King James VIII. landed alone whenbrought to the Scottish coast by Forbin's fleet inMarch 1708, he would have carried Scotland with him.But Forbin was chased away from the Firth of Forth by a fleetunder Sir George Byng; he refused to allow the young adventurerto land farther north, and the Jacobites doubted thatFrance was never serious in the enterprise. The Jacobites also,through mistrust of each other—none could trust Hamilton—andfinally through the intoxication of a pilot who failed toreach Forbin, led to the imbecile fiasco. In the English parliamentthe Jacobites managed to secure a measure of tolerationfor the Episcopal clergy, after one of them, Mr Greenshields,had long lain in prison for his use of the liturgy (1711). Thekirk was incensed by the growth of Episcopalianism and ofPopery, the restoration of patronage, and the pressure to acceptan oath abjuring James, which divided a church that was absolutelyanti-Jacobite. Repeal of the Union was actually mootedin 1712, and even Argyll was restive. The fatal duel in whichHamilton was slain by Mohun, when on the eve of going asambassador to France, with the interests of James in his eye,was a blow to the Jacobites; as were the death of Anne, the fallof Bolingbroke and the unopposed succession of George I.(August 1714). Their king over the water had, in a manly andmagnanimous letter to his adherents, refused to change his creed,and when Bolingbroke fled from England his evangelical effortsat proselytizing James were fruitless. Berwick and Bolingbrokewere his ministers, but Berwick would not accompany him toScotland, and Bolingbroke did not provide the necessary munitionsof war. Through a series of confusions and blunders, Marprematurely raised on the 16th of September 1715 the standardof King James, and though in command of a much larger armythan ever followed Montrose, was baffled by Argyll, who heldStirling with a very small force. Mar never crossed the Forth,and the command of Mackintosh, who did, was captured, withhis Northumbrian cavaliers, at Preston, on the very day (12thof November) when Argyll foiled Mar in the confused battle ofSheriffmuir. Mar's highlanders began to desert; his council wasa confusion of opinions and discontents, and when, after manydangers and in the worst of health, James joined the Jacobitesat Perth, it was only to discourage his friends by his gloom, andto share their wintry flight before Argyll to Montrose. Thencehe furtively sailed with Mar to France, a broken man, leavinghis army to shift for themselves. Many of his noble supportersescaped, he did his best to provide them with ships, others wereexecuted, while the great Whig, Forbes of Culloden, protestedagainst the bad policy of the repressive measures. Argyll, whohad saved the country, was regarded as lukewarm, and lost theroyal favour, while James, at Avignon, intrigued with CharlesXII. of Sweden and with Argyll and his brother, the earl of Islay,till he was driven from France to take refuge in Italy. Spainbacked him in 1719, but the death of Charles XII., and the utterfailure of a Spanish expedition to Scotland in 1719, when theJacobites were scattered, and the Spaniards taken, in a fight atGlensheil, ruined what had seemed a fair chance of success.Returning from Spain, James married Maria ClementinaSobieska, daughter of Prince James Sobieski, a pretty bridewhom Charles Wogan rescued from durance in Innsbruck, anadventure of romantic gallantry. The marriage was unhappy;James was eternally occupied with the business of his causeand the feuds of his adherents; Clementina lost her gaiety andbecame causelessly jealous; and her retreat to a convent in1725 was a greater blow to the cause than the failure of Atterbury'splot (1720), the alleged treason of Mar and the splitsin the Jacobite party. Clementina, however, was the mother oftwo sons, Charles Edward, the hope of his party, and Henry.The cause slumbered, till in 1742-1743 the outbreak of wars withFrance and Spain gave Prince Charles a chance of showing hismettle. The Jacobites surrounding James in Rome neverceased to weave at the endless tissue of their plot, but in Scotlandnothing more substantial than the drinking of loyal healths wasdone, between the flight of Lockhart of Carnwath, the managerof the party, and the years of 1737-1744. The old Jacobiteswere dying out; James never had a minister who was not baitedby three-fourths of the party, and denounced as a favourite atbest, at worst a traitor; and the Cause would have sunk intoashes but for the promise of his eldest son, Prince Charles.

In Scotland the kirk, as ever, was militant, but it could nolonger wage war on kings and their ministers, nor attempt toParties in the kirk.direct foreign and domestic policy. The preachers thusfell into parties, which attacked each other in abrotherly way. The grounds of strife were the spreadof “liberal” religious ideas; on one side heretical andanti-Calvinistic doctrines, and on the other a tendency to stretchCalvinistic principles till they were scarcely to be distinguishedfrom Antinomianism. A Glasgow professor, the Rev. Mr Simson,was attacked for Arminianism and Socinianism as early as 1717;and the battle raged between the more severe Presbyterians—whostill hankered after the Covenant, approved of an old workThe Marrow of Modern Divinity (1646), and were especially convincedthat preachers must be elected by the people—and theModerates, who saw that the Covenant was an anachronism,thought conduct more important than Calvinistic convictions,and supported in the General Assembly the candidates selectedby patrons, as against those chosen by the popular voice. TheMarrow was discouraged as verging on Antinomianism (1720);and in 1722 its protesting admirers were rebuked by the Assembly.The Marrow men put in protests, and were clearly on the wayto secession from the kirk. The oath of abjuration of James wasanother cause of division, at least till it was watered down in1719; and by 1726 a revival of the charges of heresy againstSimson, with the increase of agitation against the majority of theAssembly who supported patrons, lighted a flame which burnedthe slight bonds that kept the extremists in union with thekirk.

In 1732 their leaders were the brothers Erskine, one of whom,Ebenezer, preached a sermon accusing professed Presbyterians as guilty of “an attempt to jostle Christ out of his church.”For this and other severe censures of his brethren, Mr Erskinewould not apologize: he had “delivered the utterance given tohim by the Lord”: his was the very attitude of the preacherswho thundered against James VI. Mr Erskine was rebuked inthe Assembly of 1733; he protested with three friends: theywere deprived of their charges; they vowed that they were“the True Presbyterian Covenanted Church of Scotland,” andhad the power of the keys. They constituted themselves apresbytery, and maintained that the covenants were perpetuallybinding. The Assembly went as far as was possible in offers ofreconciliation, but the seceders were irreconcilable, and weredeposed in 1740. In 1744 they made the “Taking of the Covenants”a term of ministerial and Christian communion. It isimpossible here to follow the schisms which split the secedingbody within itself: the Erskines themselves were handed overto Satan; their very families adopted opposite factions: therewere “Burghers” and “Anti-Burghers,” “New Lights” and“Old Lights”; besides the sects which in the 19th centurymerged in United Presbyterians, and merged themselves laterwith the Free Church of the Disruption, itself the parent of asmall protesting body, popularly styled “The Wee Frees” (seeScotland, Church of). The whole movement, intended asa return to the kirk of Knox and Melville and the Covenanters,was a not unneeded protest against the sleepy “moderation,”and want of spiritual enthusiasm, which invaded the establishedkirk in the latter part of the 18th century, a period in whichshe possessed such distinguished writers as John Home, authorof the drama of Douglas, Robertson, the historian, and DrCarlyle, whose amusing autobiography draws a perfect portraitof an amiable and highly educated “Moderate” and man ofthe world. Naturally the opposite party, whether seceders, or“High Flyers,” as they were called, within the church, had mostinfluence with the populace, so that “the Trew Universal Kirk”of Scotland was broken into several communions, differing butslightly in accepted doctrines, and not at all in mode of worship.Their tendency has been centripetal, and all the “Free Churches”are agreed in their views concerning the prolonged existence of“the Auld Kirk.” The Episcopalians, in this period, werenearly as much perturbed as the Presbyterians, by questionsas to the election of bishops in relation to their exiled king, andby the introduction of ritualism in the shape of “the usages.”They passed through much persecution, in consequence of therising of 1745, but, after the death of their King Charles, theybecame as loyal as any other religious body, managing theirown affairs with no more turmoil than is caused by the coexistenceof the Anglican and the Laudian prayer-books, withtheir different forms of the communion service.

As to civil matters, the country was troubled by riots againstthe Malt Tax, but the clans submitted to a very superficialThe highland class.disarmament; companies of highlanders wereemployed to preserve order and check cattle-raiding;and one of these, “The Black Watch” (the Forty-Second),greatly distinguished itself at the battle of Fontenoy.Wade drove his military roads through the highlands, and,poor as the country still was, the city of Glasgow throve on thetobacco and sugar trade with America and the West Indies.Yet Duncan Forbes of Culloden, president of the Court of Session,after the outbreak of the war with Spain, reported amazingscarcity of money in the country, and strenuously advisedlegislative checks on the taste for tea, which naturally diminishedthe profits of the excise on more generous beverages. The factis that as English companies for foreign trade had long been inchartered existence, Scotsmen and Scottish capital had noprofitable outlets, while agriculture was conducted on slovenlymedieval or prehistoric methods; and only the linen trade ofthe country was really flourishing. Thus, except in the case ofthe west coast trade with the colonies, Scotland had reaped littlecommercial benefit from the Union, and the loss of businesscaused by the abolition of the parliament, and the rush of noblefamilies to London, was severely felt in Edinburgh. Yet thereexisted no dangerous political dissatisfaction. Though the chiefreligions of the highlanders, the Episcopalian and Catholicforms, were depressed by persecution, and priests were few,the clans had long been accustomed to lack of religious functionsand did not feel the want. But the hereditable jurisdictions andfeudal powers, as of calling out tenants by the fiery cross andpunishing the peaceful by burning their cottages, had never beenabolished; the chief's will was law, and if the chiefs headed arising, their clansmen would follow them, willingly or “forcedout.” They formed a remarkable militia, trained to the use ofarms; wonderfully mobile and rapid on the march and dauntlesslycourageous.

The years 1737-1739 saw the germs of civil war beginning totake active life. Simon Fraser, Lord Lovat, an aged intriguer,Bonny Prince Charlie.conceived discontent against the government for theloss of his independent company, and began to intriguewith France and with James in Rome. In the sameyear a young Tweedside laird, Murray of Broughton,visited Rome, fell in love with Prince Charles, then a handsome,wayward, stalwart and ambitious lad, with “a body made forwar,” and, returning home, Murray practically succeeded to theduties once performed by Lockhart of Carnwath, as Jacobiteagent and organizer.

In 1738 the waning power of Walpole and the approachingwar with Spain caused Forbes of Culloden to propose the raisingof four or five highland regiments for foreign service. Walpole,urged by Lord Islay, brother of Argyll, is said to have approved,but nothing was done. The declaration of war with Spain andthe certainty of war with France promised to the Jacobitesgood fishing in turbid waters; and they entertained futile hopesof enlisting Argyll with his potent clan. Walpole entered intocommunication with James, who saw through the manœuvre,and in 1741 a Jacobite association was formed, which includedLovat and Lochiel. Their agent was Drummond (Macgregorreally) of Balhaldie, who in 1741-1743 dealt with the EnglishJacobites, and persuaded France that they were powerful andeager. In fact the Scots were feebly organized, and the EnglishJacobites were not organized at all. Says Murray, “there wasnot the least ground for encouragement,” but, thanks to Balhaldie,Louis XV. began to mobilize an invading force in November1743. Balhaldie carried to James in Rome an invitation forPrince Charles to go to France, a verbal invitation, which Jamesreluctantly accepted. Cardinal Tencin was not in the secret,and by the time Charles made his way to Paris in January 1744,James clearly perceived the duplicity of France. The ScottishJacobites were left in ignorance of the French attempt to landin the mouth of the Thames (February-March 1744), an effortfrustrated by a disastrous tempest, and by the slackness of theEnglish conspirators.

Prince Charles was left in neglect and obscurity; till, uncheckedby Murray, relying on hasty Jacobite promises broughtby him, and encouraged by the French victory of Fontenoy, hestarted with seven companions for the west highland coast on the21st of July 1745. His landing at Borradale on the 5th of Augustbrought a few enthusiastic Macdonalds about him; from a senseof honour Lochiel joined with the Camerons. Keppoch andClanranald would not desert a prince with a reward of £30,000on his head, but Macleod and Sleat held aloof; and Lovatwrecked the adventure by his doubts and delays. None the lessa small ill-armed force of some 2000 men marched south; Copedid not oppose them, but evaded them and went to Inverness,leaving open the road to Edinburgh. At Perth Charles wasjoined by a skilled soldier, Lord George Murray, brother of theWhig duke of Atholl, a pardoned veteran who had been out in1715 and 1719.

But Lord George's previous dealings with Cope inspired inCharles a distrust-which was to prove fatal. Charles enteredEdinburgh unopposed on the 16th of September, made hisquarters in Holyrood, and on the 21st of September routedCope at Prestonpans. But he had not the force to invadeEngland, or to take the castle, and waited, collecting recruitsand money, and encouraged by empty promises from France, till,as he wrote to James (26th of October), “I shall have one decisive stroke for 't, but unless the French land, perhaps none. Asmatters stand, I must either conquer or perish in a little.”His English adherents did not come in, and, after marching toDerby, his council insisted that enough had been done for honour,that Wade was on their flank and rear, the duke of Cumberlandin their front, and an army was gathered to defend London.A broken-hearted man, Charles was compelled to acquiesce inretreat (5th of December). If the chiefs had possessed informationnow accessible to us, they might not have made “the greatrefusal,” but with only the intelligence which they possessedthey could not have followed their audacious prince to the south.Their force was not more than 5000 men; and they were whollyunskilled in the use of the guns which they had captured atPrestonpans. The retreat was admirably conducted; LordGeorge and Cluny fought a gallant and successful rear guard atClifton; they escaped from Cumberland across the border, butCharles, against advice, left a doomed garrison in Carlisle.After a stay to re-fit at Glasgow, Charles moved to besiegeStirling castle, and to join a force from the north, almost asnumerous as that with which he had invaded the heart ofEngland.

Cumberland had returned to London, but Hawley marchedfrom Edinburgh with an army which Charles drove to the windson Falkirk Moor. Hawley's guns were never in action,the Macdonalds charged and scattered his cavalryon the right wing, but pursued too far, and as the pipersCulloden.had gone in sword in hand, they could not be recalled. On theleft the prince's men could not load their pieces, their powderbeing ruined by the tempestuous rain. They were checked bytwo steady regiments; many fled, all was darkness and confusion,but, on returning into Falkirk, Charles found that Hawley haddecamped in a disgraceful rout. He could not pursue; thewhereabouts of his right was unknown, and after the battle hisbest officers felt rather dismayed than encouraged by the conspicuouslack of discipline. In place of advancing on Edinburgh,they dallied round Stirling castle in futile siege, and, on the newsof Cumberland's advance, alarmed by desertions which theyappear to have greatly exaggerated, the chiefs compelled Charlesto a fresh retreat. His expostulations perhaps prove him to havebeen “the best general in his army,” but he was dragged northwardsto Inverness, and with depleted ranks of starving men,outworn by the fatigue of a long night's march to surpriseCumberland at Nairn, he stood on Culloden Moor in defenceof Inverness, his base and only source of supplies (16th of April1746). Charles had some 5000 men, Cumberland had nearly9000 and eighteen well-served guns. Here for the first timethe highlanders were under heavy fire of grape and round shot, towhich they could not reply, and though the right wing and centre,Camerons, Atholl men, Macleans, Clan Chattan, Appin Stewarts,under Lord George and Lochiel, fought with even more than theirusual gallantry and resolution, the Macdonalds on the left,discouraged by the death of Keppoch, Scotus and other officersin the advance, never came to the shock. Though outflanked,enfiladed and met by heavy musketry fire in front, the rightwing broke Barrel's regiment and passed the guns, but the attackwas checked by the bayonets of the second line and a rapid retreatbecame general. Charles did not leave the field till all waslost; so much seems clear from Yorke's evidence; but theprice on his head, and probably suspicions urged by some of hisIrish officers, induced him to desert his army and hurry secretlyto the West coast and the western isles. He was rewarded by fiveor six months of dangerous and distressful wanderings, andwould certainly have been taken at one juncture but for thecourageous and wise assistance of Flora Macdonald, while on allhands the highlanders displayed the most devoted loyalty.

Into the ferocious conduct displayed by Cumberland afterthe victory, and in the suppression of the clans, we need notenter; nor is the list of executions of rebels alluring. The spiritof the clans remained true indeed, but their prince became“a broken man”: his clemency, and courage, and all that hadendeared him to his people, perished under the disgusts and vicesengendered by many years of a secret fugitive existence, after hewas driven from France in 1749 (see A. Lang's Pickle, theSpy, and Life of Prince Charles).

As far as the rising had a political aim and reason for existence,apart from mere dynastic sentiment, that aim was “to break theUnion”; in the prince's words, “to make Scotlandonce more a free and happy people.” But the vastmajority of Scots, though not in love with the Union,Modern Scotland.preferred it to the rule of a Catholic king—Charles probably,for James had every desire to abdicate. The failure of Charleshad, in fact, the result of assimilating Scotland much moreclosely to England. A disarming act, and the prohibition of thehighland dress, did not indeed break, but it transferred to otherfields the military spirit of the clans. The chiefs first raised thehighland regiments which have covered themselves with gloryfrom Ticonderoga to Dargai and Elandslaagte. The rewardwhich many of the clansmen of the Peninsula and Waterloo receivedmay be appreciated by those who read the introductionto Scott's Legend of Montrose. They returned to glens desolate ofmen, deserted, first, by the voluntary emigrations of the clans,and later by forced emigrations in the interests of sheep farmsand deer forests. The abolition of hereditable jurisdictions andof the claims of feudal superiors to military service, after Culloden,broke the bond between chiefs and clans, and introducednew social and economical conditions, bequeathing the LandQuestion to the 20th century. The “planting” of ministersin the highlands, which had since the Reformation been almostdestitute of religious instruction, bred a populace singularlystrict in the matter of “Sabbath observance,” and, except indistricts still Catholic or Episcopalian, eager supporters of theFree churches. In outlying places the old popular beliefs linger;second sight is common in some glens; and the interesting poeticaltraditions, like Jacobite sentiment, survive in the memories of thepeople, despite cheap newspapers and modern education.

With the failure of the last armed attempt to “break theUnion,” Scottish history is merged in that of Great Britain;it was a British force that routed the Jacobites at Culloden.After 1745 the men of letters of the country continued withintense eagerness the movement initiated by John Knox, when hewrote in English, not in the old Scots that he learned at hismother's knee. Hutchinson, David Hume, Home and Robertsonwere assiduous in avoiding Scotticisms as far as they might;even Burns, who summed up the popular past of Scotland in hisvernacular poetry, as a rule wrote English in his letters, and whenhe wrote English verse he often followed the artificial style of the18th-century. The later famous men of letters, Scott, Carlyleand R. L. Stevenson, appealed as much to English readers as totheir countrymen, patriotic as each of them was in his own way.As early as 1730–1740, the great English public schools anduniversities began to attract the Scottish youths of the wealthierclasses, and now good Scots is seldom heard in conversation andis not always written in popular Scottish novels. Scotlandand England, however, will always remain pleasantly distinctby virtue of their historical past and inherited traditions.

Bibliography.—The best general History of Scotland is thatby Patrick Fraser-Tytler (1841–1843). It ends, however, with theUnion of the crowns in 1603, and though it is based on thoroughresearch in MSS., many documents now available, such as thedispatches of Spanish ambassadors to England, were not accessibleto the learned author. The History by John Hill Burton (Edinburgh,1867–1870) ends with the Jacobite Rising of 1746. It is of unequalmerit, being best in places where the author was most interested,especially in points of the development of law. Here the worksof Cosmo Innes are valuable, Lectures on Scotch legal antiquities(Edinburgh, 1872); and Scotland in the middle ages (Edinburgh,1860). Burton's anti-Celticism, and scepticism as to archaeology,make his work inadequate in the earlier parts. On the Celticbeginnings the best books are E. W. Robertson's Scotland under herEarly Kings (Edinburgh, 1862) and W. F. Skene's Celtic Scotland(Edinburgh, 1876–1880), with his Highlanders of Scotland in theedition edited by A. Macbain (Stirling, 1902); other views aremaintained in Rhys's Celtic Britain (1884). David Stewart ofGarth's Sketches of the Highlanders (Edinburgh, 1822) is interesting,though the author leans too much on tradition; and Dr Gregory'sHistory of the Highlands (1881) is excellent, but closes with the Unionof the crowns. Scott's Tales of a Grandfather is, of course, full ofinterest, but is inevitably somewhat behind the mark of later years of research. The Foreign Calendars of State Papers, especiallyJ. Bain's Calendars (Edinburgh, 1881–1888), are useful indices, butnot infrequently need to be checked by the manuscripts.

There is much new information among the documents publishedby the Historical Manuscripts Commission, by the Scottish HistorySociety, and the Register of the Privy Council, edited by ProfessorsMasson and Hume Brown. The volumes of the book clubs, Bannatyne,Maitland, Abbotsford and Spalding, are full of matter; alsothose of the Early Scottish Texts Society and the Wodrow Society,with the works of Knox, Calderwood and the History of the Sufferingsby Wodrow (edited by the Rev. Robert Burns, 1837–1838). Knox,like Bishop Burnet, needs to be read critically and in the light ofcontemporary documents; especially those in the Hamilton Papers,The Border Papers and English State Papers (Foreign). The mostrecent general Histories of Scotland are those of P. Hume Brown(Cambridge, 1899), and on a larger scale, but ending at 1746, of A.Lang (Edinburgh, 1900–1907). Mathieson's works deal with theperiod of the Covenant and Civil War, and, like Mackinnon's, withthe Union; while Sir H. Craik's A Century of Scottish History(Edinburgh, 1901) gives a full account of the disruption of the Kirk.Many important manuscripts in muniment rooms are still uncalendared;those of the French Foreign Office are imperfect inplaces, and have been little consulted; and a complete calendar ofthe treasures of the Advocate's Library was only recently begun.

Among monographs, Six Saints of the Covenant and The Life ofMary Stuart (up to 1568), by D. Hay Fleming; the Life of Knox,by P. Hume Brown, and John Knox and the Reformation, by A. Lang;Miss Shield's King over the Water and Martin Haile's James FrancisStuart (the old Chevalier); Omond's Lord Advocates of Scotland;Willco*ck's The Great Marquess (of Argyll); Napier's Lives ofMontrose and Dundee; Clarke and Foxcroft's Life of Bishop Burnet;Sir Herbert Maxwell's Robert Bruce and Book of Douglas, with allSir W. Fraser's family histories, and Patrick's Statutes of the ScottishChurch, may on various points prove serviceable. For Scottishconstitutional history, what there is of it, Sanford Terry's ScottishParliaments may be recommended.(A. L.) 

IV. Scottish Literature

“Scottish Literature” is taken here in the familiar sense ofthe Teutonic vernacular of Scotland, not in the more comprehensivesense of the literature of Scotland or of writings by menof Scottish birth, whether in Gaelic (see Celt) or Latin orNorthern English. The difference between the two definitions,however, is of small practical concern. The Scottish-Gaelicl*terature, which is separately dealt with (see Celt: Literature)is, by comparison, of minor importance; and the Latin, thoughit has a range and influence in Scotland to which it is difficultto find a parallel in the history of the literatures of Europe, is(perhaps for the very reason of its persistency and extent) sobound up with the vernacular that it may be conveniently treatedwith that literature. It is true that down to the 15th centurythere were many Teutonic Scots who had difficulty in expressingthemselves in “Ynglis,” and that, at a later date, the literaryvocabulary was strongly influenced by the Latin habit of Scottishculture; but the difficulty was generally academic, arising froma scholarly sensitiveness to style in the use of a medium whichhad no literary traditions; perhaps also from medieval andhumanistic contempt of the vulgar tongue; in some cases fromthe cosmopolitan circ*mstance of the Scot and the specialnature of his appeal to the learned world. The widespreaduse of Latin was, however, seldom or never antagonistic tothe preservation of national sentiment. That it was used forother than literary purposes strengthened that sentiment in away which mere scholarly or literary interest could not havedone. The Scottish timbre is rarely wanting, even in places wherescholastic or classical custom might have claimed, as in otherliteratures, an exclusive privilege. And to say this implies nodisrespect to the quality of early Scottish Latinity.

In a survey of the vernacular literature of Scotland it is advantageousto keep in mind that there are two main streams orthreads running throughout, the one literary in the higher sense,expressing itself in “schools” of a more artificial or academictype; the other popular, also in the better sense of that term,more native, more rooted in national tradition, more persistentand conversely less bookish in fashion. The former is representedby the group known as the Scottish Chaucerians, by the17th-centuryCourt poets, by the “English” writings of literaryEdinburgh of the 18th century; the latter by the domestic and“rustic” muse from Christis Kirk on the Grene to the work ofthe 18th century revival begun in Ramsay. There is, of course,frequent interaction between these two movements, but recognitionof their separate development is necessary to the understandingof such contemporary contrasts as the Thrissil and theRois and Peblis to the Play, Drummond and Montgomerie,Ramsay and Hume. In our own day, when the literary mediumof Scotland is identical with that of England, the term Scottishliterature has been reserved for certain dialectal revivals, moreor less bookish in origin, and often as artificial and as unrelatedto existing conditions as the most “aureate” and Chaucerian“Ynglis” of the 15th century was to the popular speech of thattime.

This sketch is concerned only with the general process ofScottish literature. An estimate of the writings of individualauthors will be found in separate articles, to which the reader is,in each case, referred.

I. Early Period (from the beginnings to the earlier decadesof the 15th century). The literary remains of this periodwritten in the vernacular, which is in its main characteristics“Northern English,” are in the familiar medieval kinds ofromance and rhymed chronicle. After the Wars of Independencea national or Scottish sentiment is discernible, but it does notcolour the literature of this age as it does that of later periodswhen political and social conditions had suffered serious change.

The earliest extant verse has been associated withThomas of Ercildoune (q.v.), called The Rhymer, but the problem of theScot's share in reworking the Tristrem saga is in some importantpoints undetermined. Uncertainty also hangs round the laterHuchown (q.v.), who continues in the 14th century the traditionsof medieval romance. Contemporary with the work of the latterare a few anonymous fragments such as the verses on the deathof Alexander II., first quoted by Wyntoun in the 15th century,and the snatches on the “Maydens of Englelonde” and “Longbeerdys,” quoted by Fabyan. The type of alliterative romanceshown in the work ascribed to Huchown continued to be popularthroughout the period (e.g. The Knightly Tale of Golagros andGawane), and lingered on in the next in The Buke of the Howlatby Holland (q.v.), the anonymous Rauf Coilȝear of the thirdquarter of the 15th century, and in occasional pieces of, burlesqueby the “Chaucerian” makars.

Independent of this group of alliterative romances is the notless important body of historical verse associated with the namesof John Barbour (q.v.), Andrew of Wyntoun (q.v.), and, in themiddle period, Harry the Minstrel (q.v.). Barbour has beencalled the Father of Scottish Poetry, apparently for no otherreason than that he is the oldest writer who has held place inpopular esteem. Though his work shows some of the qualitiesof a poet, which are entirely lacking in the annalistic verse ofWyntoun, he is without literary influence. Later political fervourhas grouped him with the author of the Wallace, and treatedthe unequal pair as the singers of a militant patriotism. Thatassociation is not only unjust to Barbour's literary claims, buta misinterpretation of the general terms of his political appeal.The “Scottish prejudice” which Burns tells us was “poured”into his veins from the Wallace is not obvious to the dispassionatereader of the Brus.

II. Middle Period (extending, roughly, throughout the 15thand 16th centuries). To this period belongs the important groupof Middle Scots “makars” or poets who, in the traditionalphrase of the literary historians, made their age “the GoldenAge of Scottish Poetry”; it is in the writings of this timethat we find the practice of the artificial literary dialect knownas Middle Scots; but there is also in this period the first clearindications of other literary types of great prospective interestin the historical development of the literature of Scotland.

The prevailing influence in the writers of greater account isChaucerian. These writers, to whom the name of “The ScottishChaucerians” has been given, broke with the manner of 14th-centuryverse, and carried over from the south much of theverbal habit and not a little of the literary sentiment of themaster-poet. In both respects they are always superior toLydgate, Occleve and other southern contemporaries; and not rarely they approach Chaucer in sheer accomplishment. Thefirst example of this new style is the Kingis Quair of James I.(q.v.), a dream-poem written in Troilus verse, and reminiscentof Chaucer's translation of the Romance of the Rose. Theindebtedness to Chaucer, even when full allowance is made forthe young poet's individuality, is direct and clear. The language,like that of the later Lancelot of the Laik and the Quare of Jelousy,represents no spoken dialect. Whether it is to be explained bythe deliberate adoption of southern literary forms by the author,which his enthusiasm for Chaucer and the circ*mstances of hissojourn in England made inevitable, or whether the single textwhich is extant is a Scottish scribe's rendering of a text purelysouthern in character, is a nice academic question. The balanceof evidence, and the presumption is strongly in favour of theformer, which is the traditional view. When the linguisticforms of the other pieces in the Selden MS., presumably by thesame scribe, have been carefully examined and compared, itshould not be difficult to reach a final settlement.

The later Scots Chaucerian type is less directly derivativein its treatment of allegory and in its tricks of style, and lesssouthern in its linguistic forms; but, though it is more originaland natural, it nevertheless retains much of the Chaucerian habit.The greater poets who represent this type are Robert Henryson,William Dunbar, Gavin Douglas, and, to a large extent, Sir DavidLyndsay—whose united genius has given high literary reputationto the so-called Golden Age. General opinion has exaggeratedthe importance of the minor writers who shared in this poeticaloutburst. There is, of course, some historical significance inthe drawing up of such lists as we have in Dunbar's Lament forthe Makaris, or in Douglas's Palice of Honour, or in Lyndsay'sTestament of the Papyngo, but it is at the same time clear thattheir critical importance has been exaggerated. Several of thewriters named belong to an earlier period; of many of the otherswe know little or nothing; and of the best known, such as WalterKennedy (q.v.) and Quintyn Schaw, it would be hard to, say thatthey are not as uniformly dull as any of Occleve's southerncontemporaries.

The greater portion of this Middle Scots “Chaucerian”literature is courtly in character, in the literary sense, that itcontinues and echoes the sentiment and method of the verseof the cours d'amour type; and in the personal sense, that it wasdirectly associated with the Scottish court and conditioned by it.All the greater writers, with the exception of Robert Henryson,were well born and connected with the Household, or in highoffice. Hence what is not strictly allegorical after the fashion ofthe Romaunt of the Rose or Chaucer's exercises in that kind, isfor the most part occasional, dealing with courtiers' sorrow andfun, with the conventional plaints on the vanity of the world andwith pious ejacul*tion. Even Henryson, perhaps the mostoriginal of these poets, is in his most original pieces strongly“Chaucerian” in method, notably in his remarkable series ofFables, and his Testament of Cresseid, a continuation of the storyleft untold by Chaucer. In his Robene and Makyne, on theother hand, he breaks away, and follows, if he follows anything,the tradition of the pastourelles. Dunbar often, and at timesdeliberately, recalls the older verse-habit, even in his vigorousshorter poems; and Douglas, in his Palice of Honour and KingHart, and even in his translation of Virgil, is unequivocallymedieval. Still later, amid the satire and Reformation heat ofLyndsay we have the old manner persisting in the Testamentsand in the tale of Squyer Meldrum.

There are, as might be expected, points of contact between thework of the greater makars and the more native and “popular”material. It is remarkable that each of these poets has leftone example of the old manner, shown in the alliterative romance-poem;but the fact that in each case their purpose is stronglyburlesque is significant of the change in literary outlook.

The non-Chaucerian verse of this period is represented by (a)alliterative romance-poems and (b) verse of a rustic, domesticand “popular” character. Of the historical romance-poemthere is little or nothing beyond Henry the Minstrel's Wallace(supra). The outstanding type is shown in such pieces asHolland's (q.v.) Buke of the Howlat, and in the anonymous poemsGolagros and Gawane, The Awntyrs of Arthur at the Terne Wathelyne,Rauf Coilȝear and The Pistill of Susan. These, however,were already outworn forms, lingering on in a period which hadchosen other ideals.

Strong as the Chaucerian influence was, it was too artificial tochange the native habit of Scots verse; and though it helpsto explain much in the later history of Scots literature, it offersno key to the main process of that literature in succeedingcenturies. Our knowledge of this non-Chaucerian material,as of the Chaucerian, is chiefly derived from the MS. collectionsof Asloan, Bannatyne (q.v.) and Maitland (q.v.), supplementedby the references to “fugitive” and “popular”literature in Dunbar, Douglas, Lyndsay and, in especial, theprose Complaynt of Scotlande. Classification of this literature bytraditional subdivision into genres is difficult, and, at the best,unprofitable. The historical student will be mainly interestedin discovering anticipations of the later style and purpose ofRamsay, Fergusson and Burns, and in finding therein earlyevidence of what has been too often treated as the characteristicsof later Scotticism. It would not be difficult to show that thereaction in the 18th century against literary and class affectation—howevereditorial and bookish it was in the choice of subjectsand forms—was in reality a re-expression of the old themesin the old ways, which had never been forgotten, even whenMiddle Scots, Jacobean and early 18th-century verse-fashionswere strongest. It is impossible here to do more than to pointout the leading elements and to name the leading examples.These elements are, briefly stated, (1) a strong partiality forsubjects dealing with humble life, in country and town, with thefun of taverns and village greens, with that domestic life in therough which goes to the making of the earlier farces in English andFrench; (2) a whimsical, elfin kind of wit, delighting in extravaganceand topsy-turviness; (3) a frank interest in the pleasuresof good company and good drink. The reading of 15th- and 16th-centuryverse in the light of these will bring home the criticalerror of treating such poems as Burns's Cottar's Saturday Night,the Address to the Deil, and Scotch Drink as entirely expressionsof the later poet's personal predilection. Of the more serious, or“ethical” or “theological” mood which counts for so muchin the modern estimate of Scottish literature, there is but littleevidence in the popular verse of the middle period. Even in thedeliberately religious and moral work of the more academic poetsthis seriousness is never more exclusive or oppressive than it isin any other literature of the time. If it becomes an obsession ofmany of the post-Reformation writers, it becomes so by theforce majeure of special circ*mstances rather than in the exerciseof an old-established habit.

Outstanding examples of this rustic style are Peblis to thePlay and Christis Kirk on the Grene, ascribed by some to James V.(q.v.), Sym and his Brudir, a satirical tale of two palmers,The Wyf of Auchtirmuchty and the Wowing of Jok and Jynny.The more imaginative, elfin quality, familiar in Dunbar'sBallad of Kynd Kittok and his Interlude of the Droichis Partappears in such pieces as Gyre Carling (the mother-witch), KingBerdok, and Lichtounis Dreme. The convivial verse, at its bestin Dunbar's Testament of Mr Andrew Kennedy, may be studied inQuhy sould nocht Allane honorit be, one of the many eulogies ofJohn Barleycorn anticipatory of Burns's well-known piece.In the collections there are few examples of the simple fabliau,the best being the Thrie Priestis of Peblis and The Dumb Wyf,or of the social variety of the same as shown in Rauf Coilȝearand John the Reeve. For the latter Sir David Lyndsay remainsthe chief exponent. Of historical and patriotic verse there arefew specimens, but some of the lyrics and love-songs, more or lessmedieval in timbre and form, are of importance. Of these, TayisBank and The Murning Maiden are perhaps the best.

Vernacular prose was, as might be expected, and especially inScotland, late in its appearance. The main work continued tobe done in Latin, and to better purpose by Hector Boece (q.v.),John Major (q.v.) and George Buchanan (q.v.) than by the earlierannalists Fordun (q.v.) and Bower (q.v.). It is not till the middle of the 15th century that we encounter any works seriouslyundertaken in the vulgar: before that time there is nothingbut an occasional letter (e.g. that of the earl of March to HenryIV.), a few laws, and one or two scraps in the Asloan and otherMSS., all of the plainest and without any effort towards style.Nor can it be said that the first works of a more extensive anddeliberate character show any consciousness of pure art as wefind it in contemporary writings in England, though the fact thatthey are translations has some prospective significance. Theearliest books are Sir Gilbert Haye's Buke of the Law ofArms, Buke of the Order of Knighthood, and Government ofPrinces, preserved in a single MS. at Abbotsford. The dulltreatise of John of Ireland (q.v.) lays claim to originality of akind. The author's confession that, being “thretty ȝeris nuristin Fraunce, and in the noble study of Paris in Latin toung,”he “knew nocht the gret eloquens of Chauceir,” and again thathe had written another work in Latin, “the tounge that I knawbetter,” is valuable testimony to the difficulties in the way ofa struggling Scots prose. Other preliminary efforts are thePortuus of Nobilnes in the Asloan MS.; the Spectakle of Luf,translated by G. Mill (1492); and the Schort Memoriole of theScottis Corniklis, an account of the reign of James II. In theearly 16th century the use of the vernacular is extended, chieflyin the treatment of historical and polemical subjects, as inMurdoch Nisbet's version of Purvey (in MS. till 1901), a compromisebetween northern and southern usage; Gau's (q.v.)Richt Vay, translated from Christiern Pedersen; Bellenden's(q.v.) translation of Livy and Scottish History; the Complaynt ofScotlande, largely a mosaic of translation from the French;Ninian Winzet's (q.v.) Tractates; Lesley's (q.v.) History ofScotland; Knox's (q.v.) History; Buchanan's (q.v.) Chamaeleon;Lindesay of Pitscottie's (q.v.) History; and the tracts of NicolBurne and other exiled Catholics. In these works, and especiallyin Knox, the language is strongly southern. The Scriptures,which had an important bearing on the literary style, as on othermatters, were, with the exception of Nisbet's version, which doesnot appear to have widely circulated, accepted in the southerntext. It was not till the publication of Bassandyne's Biblein 1576-1579 that a Scottish version was used officially. Lyndsayin the midst of passages in Scots quotes directly from theGenevan version. The literary influence of the Bassandynewas unimportant. Of the prose books named the Complaynt ofScotlande is the most remarkable example of aureate MiddleScots, the prose analogue of the verse of the “Chaucerians.”This characteristic is by no means strong in Scots prose, even atthis time: the last, and most extravagant, example is theRolment of Courtis by Abacuck Bysset, as late as 1622.

So far in our treatment of the Middle Period we have takenaccount of the “Chaucerian” and more popular verse and ofthe prose. There appear towards the close of the period certainverse-writers, who, despite points of difference with their MiddleScots predecessors, belong as much to this period as to the next.In language they are still Scottish; if they show any southernaffectations, it is (all echoes of the older aureate style notwithstanding)the affectation of Tudor and Elizabethan English.This poetry, like that of the early half of the period, is courtly;its differences are the differences between the atmosphere of thereigns of the first and fourth Jameses and that of the sixth.When the sixth James becomes the first of England, a morethorough transformation is discernible. In the centre of thisgroup is King James (q.v.) himself, poet and writer of prose;but he yields in literary competence to Alexander Scott (q.v.)and Alexander Montgomerie (q.v.). Their interest on the formalside is retrospective, but it is possible to find even in the persistentreiteration of medieval sentiment and methods, a fresh feeling fornature, and a lyrical quality of later timbre. With these may benamed the minors, William Fowler (q.v.), Alexander Arbuthnot(q.v.) and John Rolland (q.v.), the last most strongly influencedby Douglas and the earlier “makars.”

III. The third period begins with the 17th century, with theunion of the English and Scottish crowns, if we seek the aid ofpolitical history for our literary finger-posts. Strict accuracywould place the date of change earlier than 1600 or 1603, for thereis evidence in the 16th century, even outside the region ofdiplomatic and official correspondence, of the intermingling ofthe north and south. It is, however, when James is establishedon his new throne that we have the clearest signs of the changeswhich had been at work and were ultimately to transform theentire literary habit of his ancient kingdom. The recital of thenames of the Anglo-Scots poets will make this clear: Robert Ker,earl of Ancram, best known for his Sonnet in Praise of a SolitaryLife; Sir David Murray of Gorthy, who wrote The tragicallDeath of Sophonisba; Sir William Alexander (q.v.), afterwardsearl of Stirling; William Drummond, laird of Hawthornden(q.v.); Sir Robert Aytoun (q.v.); James Grahame, marquess ofMontrose; Patrick Hannay; and the covenanting Sir WilliamMure of Rowallan (q.v.); a group whose “courtly” style mightbe assumed, had the literary evidence been less ample than it is.So, too, in prose. There we have Drummond again, and thatstrange genius Sir Thomas Urquhart (q.v.); a crowd of polemicalwriters, mostly ecclesiastics; all the historians, includingSpotswood and Calderwood. There is small room for the oldvernacular here; and less when we take into account the stillactive Latinity, shown in the publication by the poet ArthurJohnston (q.v.) of the two volumes of Delitiae poetarum Scotorumhujus aevi illustrium (1637), and in the writings of John Barclay(q.v.) author of the Argenis, Sir Robert Aytoun (v.s.), ThomasDempster (q.v.), the historian, David Hume of Godscroft, SirJohn Scot of Scotstarvet, best known for his prose StaggeringState, Sir Thomas Craig, author of the Jus Feudale, AndrewMelville and others represented in Johnston's volumes.

There is nothing in Scots to balance this English and Latinlist. The play Philotus, a poor example in a genre rarelyattempted in the north, is indebted to the south for more thanits subject. The interesting philological tractate Of the Orthographieand Congruitie of the Briton Tongue by Alexander Hume(not the verse writer, u.s.) is in its language a medley; andWilliam Lithgow had travelled too widely to retain his nativespeech in purity, even in his indifferent verse. Scraps may beunearthed as mediocre as the Answer to Curat Caddel's Satyreupon the Whigs, which attempts to revive the mere vulgarity of theScots “flyting.” The only contributions which redeem thesehundred years and more from the charge of disrespect to the nativemuse come from the pen of the Sempills (q.v.). And even hereindividual merit must yield to historical interest. We areattracted to Beltrees and his kinsmen less by their craftsmanshipthan by the fact that they supplied the leaders of the vernacularrevival of the 18th century with many subjects and verse models,and that by their treatment of these subjects and models,based on the practice of an earlier day, they complete the evidenceof the continuity of the domestic popular type of Scots verse.

In the 18th century the literary union of the North and Southis complete. The Scot, whatever dialectal habits marked hisspeech, wrote the English of Englishmen. The story of histriumphs belongs to the story of English literature: to it weleave James Thomson, Adam Smith, David Hume, James Boswelland Sir Walter Scott. If the work begun by Allan Ramsay,continued by Fergusson and completed by Burns, were matterfor separate treatment, it would be necessary to show not onlythat the editorial zeal which turned these writers to the forgottenvernacular and to “popular” themes was inspired by thegeneral conditions of reaction against the artificiality of thecentury; but that it was because these poets were Scots, andin Scotland, that they chose this line of return to nature andnaturalness, and did honour, partly by protest, to the slightedefforts of the “vulgar” muse. Yet even they did not abjurethe “southern manner,” and their work in it is matter of somecritical significance, whatever may be said of its inferiority inspirit and craftsmanship.

Bibliography.—Authorities dealing with individual authors andtheir generation are named in the bibliographies appended to thearticles on Scottish writers. Reference may be made here to thefollowing general works (given in chronological order): Warton,History of English Poetry (1774-1781); D. Irving, Scotish Writers(1839), and History of Scotish Poetry (1861); H. Ward, The English

Poets (1880-1881), passim; H. Craik, English Prose Selections(1893-1896), passim; W. J. Courthope, History of English Poetry,i. and ii. (1895-1897); J. J. Jusserand, Literary History of theEnglish People, i. and ii. (1895, 1906); T. F. Henderson, ScottishVernacular Literature (1898); G. Gregory Smith, The TransitionPeriod (1900), and Specimens of Middle Scots (1902); Chambers'sCyclopaedia of English Literature (1901-1903); J. H. Millar, ALiterary History of Scotland (1903); The Cambridge History ofEnglish Literature, ii. (1908).

(G. G. S.) 

  1. By naturalization and at sea.
  2. Aged 10 years and upwards.
  3. Not including mountain and heath land.
  4. Not separately distinguished.
  5. Includingmares kept for breeding.
  6. A separate secretary of state for Scotland was in existence afterthe Union, but this office was abolished in 1746. From 1782 to 1885the secretary of state for the home department was responsible forthe conduct of Scottish business, being advised in these matters bythe lord advocate. The secretary for Scotland is not one of theprincipal secretaries of state.
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Scotland - Wikisource, the free online library (2024)

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